Bangladesh Gender Statistics 2012

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

 

Statistics and Informatics Division

Ministry of Planning

Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Foreword

Women empowerment and bringing women in the mainstream of development is one of the

priority agenda for Bangladesh which is signatory of the “Convention for Elimination of all

Sorts of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)” and committed to achieve gender equality

and equity in every arena of socio-economic activities. The Millennium Development Goals

(MDGs) have also emphasized on the equal opportunity for women in every sphere of life.

To ensure equal participation of women in economic development process, it is urgently needed

to know their current participation status in different sectors of the economy. In order to monitor

the progress of women in different sectors, gender disaggregated data is essential for

formulating an effective plan in respect of women empowerment.

Efforts taken by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) are highly appreciated for compiling

“Gender Statistics of Bangladesh-2012” using data from various secondary sources like censuses

& surveys of BBS as well as data from concerned source agencies. I hope this will minimize the

data gaps and fulfill user specific demands of gender activists. This report has highlighted

gender disaggregated data for different socio-economic sectors that will be useful for the

policymakers, researchers, development partners and gender activists to develop appropriate

programs and policies.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Golam Mostafa Kamal, Director General,

BBS and his colleagues for preparing this report. I acknowledge the contribution of the

Technical Committee members for their valuable suggestions and comments for improvement of

the report. The Editors Forum of BBS also deserves special recognition as its members have

reviewed the report and contributed to its improvement.

Suggestions and comments on the report are most welcome as BBS is striving for excellence.

Dhaka, June 2013 Md. Nojibur Rahman

Secretary

Statistics and Informatics Division (SID)

Ministry of Planning

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Preface

Collecting gender-disaggregated data is very essential for assessing changes in the situation of women and

men overtime. In this way, gender statistics raises consciousness and provides the impetus for public debate

and change. As gender issues move forward in national and global agendas, new demands are created for

statistics. Gender disaggregated data are available in various surveys and census reports. However, these data

are presented in a sporadic manner spread across many reports making it difficult to use by policymakers and

stakeholders. Aggregating and compiling these data into a single report in a time series format would be a big

step towards better assisting analysis, policymaking and gender perspective development programs.

In light of the users’ demand of gender statistics, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics has prepared this report on

“Gender Statistics of Bangladesh 2012” by using data from different censuses, surveys and administrative

reports. It may be mentioned that United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) has developed a framework

to compile gender statistics and requested the member states to follow the framework. This framework

contains 52 indicators of which Bangladesh has been able to compile as many as 43 indicators. Accordingly,

this report has been prepared on the basis of national and international demand to highlight the status of

women empowerment and their participation in different sectors of the economy. It covers women

participation in education, labour force & employment, income generation, resource mobilization, health care,

social services, etc.

I would like to express my thanks and profound gratitude to the chairman of the technical committee, Dr.

Barkat-e- Khuda, along with all other members for their great contribution in preparing the report. Special

thanks to Dr. Nazmunnessa Mahtab, Professor of Dhaka University, Ms. Simeen Mahmud of BRAC

Development Institute, Dr. Sadananda Mitra, Gender Statistics Adviser, UN WOMEN and Mr Abdullah

Harun Pasha, Former Director, Demography & Health Wing for editing and reviewing the draft report and

providing valuable suggestions and comments for analytical improvements of the report.

I would like to thank Mr. Jafor Ahmed Khan, Director, Demography & Health Wing, Focal Point Officer and

Deputy Director, Mr. A.K.M. Tahidul Islam, Mr. S. M. Anwar Husain, Statistical Assistant, BBS & Local

Consultant, Late Mr. Hafizur Rahman who were involved in preparation of this report. Mr. Md. Shamsul

Alam, Director Industry and Labour Wing also provided technical input in preparing this report. I hope that

the report will be useful to the planners, administrators, policy makers, development partners, and women

activists to formulate appropriate programs and policies for promoting more equitable access to income,

resources and social services for the women.

Suggestions and comments for further improvement of the report are most welcome.

Golam Mostafa Kamal

Dhaka, June, 2013 (Additional Secretary)

Director General

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

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CONTENTS

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................................................... iii

Preface ...................................................................................................................................................................................... v

CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................................................... vii

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................................................. xi

Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................................................................. xvii

Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... xxi

Selected Indicators of Gender Statistics by Domain .................................................................................................................. xxiii

CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

1.3 Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.4 Limitation .............................................................................................................................................................. 6

1.5 Organization of the report ..................................................................................................................................... 7

CHAPTER 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Household and Population ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

2.01 Population Size ................................................................................................................................................... 9

2.02 Population Structure by Broad Age Group ........................................................................................................ 9

2.03 Population Distribution by Age Group and Sex............................................................................................... 10

2.04 Sex Ratio ........................................................................................................................................................... 12

2.05 Household Head by Sex .................................................................................................................................... 12

2.06 Household Size by Sex of Household Head ..................................................................................................... 13

2.07 Average Family Members by Sex and Land Ownership ................................................................................. 13

2.08 Earning Status of Household Members ............................................................................................................ 14

2.09 Internal Migration ............................................................................................................................................. 15

2.10 In and Out Migration Rate ................................................................................................................................ 16

2.11 Direction of In-Migration ................................................................................................................................. 16

2.12 Reasons for In-Migration and Gender: ............................................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

Marriage, Fertility and Contraceptive Use .................................................................................................................................... 19

3.01 Mean Age at Marriage ...................................................................................................................................... 19

3.02 Early Marriage .................................................................................................................................................. 20

3.03 Women Aged 20-24 Married before Age 18 ................................................................................................... 22

3.04 Spousal Age Difference .................................................................................................................................... 22

3.05 Marital Status .................................................................................................................................................... 25

3.06 Total Fertility .................................................................................................................................................... 26

3.07 Age-Specific Fertility Rate ............................................................................................................................... 27

3.08 Total Marital Fertility Rate ............................................................................................................................... 27

3.09 General Fertility Rate ........................................................................................................................................ 28

3.10 Children Ever Born ........................................................................................................................................... 28

3.11 Divorce and Separation Rate ............................................................................................................................ 28

3.12 Age-Specific Divorce and Separation Rate ...................................................................................................... 29

3.13 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate ......................................................................................................................... 30

CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 33

Health and Nutrition ......................................................................................................................................................................... 33

4.01 Crude Death Rate .............................................................................................................................................. 33

4.02 Age-Specific Death Rate .................................................................................................................................. 33

4.03 Neonatal Mortality Rate .................................................................................................................................... 35

4.04 Post Neonatal Mortality Rate ............................................................................................................................ 35

4.05 Infant Mortality Rate......................................................................................................................................... 36

4.06 Child Mortality Rate ......................................................................................................................................... 36

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4.07 Under 5 Mortality Rate ..................................................................................................................................... 37

4.08 Maternal Mortality Ratio .................................................................................................................................. 37

4.09 Causes of Maternal Death ................................................................................................................................. 38

4.10 Principal Causes of Death ................................................................................................................................. 38

4.11 Percentage Distribution of Death by Causes .................................................................................................... 39

4.12 Expectation of Life ........................................................................................................................................... 40

4.13 Abridged Life Table .......................................................................................................................................... 41

4.14 Infant and Young Child Feeding ...................................................................................................................... 42

4.15 Child Nutrition Status ....................................................................................................................................... 43

4.16 Low Birth Weight ............................................................................................................................................. 44

4.17 Immunization .................................................................................................................................................... 44

4.18 Vitamin A Supplement ..................................................................................................................................... 44

4.19 Antenatal Care ................................................................................................................................................... 45

4.20 Delivery Care .................................................................................................................................................... 46

CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

Morbidity and Health Services ........................................................................................................................................................ 47

5.01 Population Suffered from Diseases .................................................................................................................. 47

5.02 Average Duration of Ailment by Types of Disease ......................................................................................... 47

5.03 Method of Treatment ........................................................................................................................................ 48

5.04 Childhood Illness and Treatment ...................................................................................................................... 49

5.05 Sources of Medicine ......................................................................................................................................... 51

5.06 Average Days Required for Consulting Doctor for the First Time after Ailment .......................................... 52

5.07 Average Waiting Time ...................................................................................................................................... 52

5.08 Preference of Health Service Provider ............................................................................................................. 53

5.09 Treatment Cost .................................................................................................................................................. 54

5.10 Reasons for Non-treatment ............................................................................................................................... 54

5.11 Prevalence of Smoking ..................................................................................................................................... 55

CHAPTER 6 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 57

Disability .................................................................................................................................................................................... 57

6.01 Age Sex Distribution ........................................................................................................................................ 57

6.02 Crude Disability ................................................................................................................................................ 57

6.03 Age-Specific Disability ..................................................................................................................................... 58

6.04 Causes of Disability .......................................................................................................................................... 59

6.05 Types of Disability ............................................................................................................................................ 59

6.06 Economic Participation ..................................................................................................................................... 60

6.07 Child Disability ................................................................................................................................................. 60

6.08 Child Injury ....................................................................................................................................................... 61

CHAPTER 7 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 63

Economic Participation and Gender ............................................................................................................................................... 63

7.01 Size of Labour Force ......................................................................................................................................... 63

7.02 Labour Force Growth Rate ............................................................................................................................... 64

7.03 Crude Activity Rate .......................................................................................................................................... 65

7.04 Refined Activity Rate ....................................................................................................................................... 65

7.05 Age-Specific Labour Force Participation Rate ................................................................................................ 66

7.06 Working Age Population by Activity Status .................................................................................................... 66

7.07 Working Age Population (15+ yrs) by Broad Economic Category ................................................................. 67

7.08 Working Age Population Engaged in Household Work .................................................................................. 68

7.09 Labour Force by Level of Education ................................................................................................................ 69

7.10 Employment by Sector ...................................................................................................................................... 70

7.11 Employment by Major Occupation .................................................................................................................. 71

7.12 Employment by Major Occupation and Residence .......................................................................................... 72

7.13 Employed Persons by Employment Status ....................................................................................................... 73

7.14 Employment by Broad Economic Sector ......................................................................................................... 74

7.15 Employed by Main Industries ........................................................................................................................... 75

7.16 Weekly Hours Worked ..................................................................................................................................... 76

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7.17 Growth of Labour Force by Industries ............................................................................................................. 77

7.18 Average Weekly Hours Worked by Employment Status................................................................................. 78

7.19 Average Weekly Hours Worked by Industry ................................................................................................... 79

7.20 Hours Worked by Occupation .......................................................................................................................... 81

7.21 Employment in Garments Industry .................................................................................................................. 82

7.22 Overseas Employment ...................................................................................................................................... 82

7.23 Salaried Employees by Income-Groups ........................................................................................................... 84

7.24 Wage Rate by Sex ............................................................................................................................................. 86

7.25 Day Labourers by Weekly Income ................................................................................................................... 86

7.26 Monthly Variation in Daily Wage Rate ........................................................................................................... 87

7.27 Unemployment Rate by Sex ............................................................................................................................. 88

7.28 Unemployment Rate by Age Group ................................................................................................................. 89

7.29 Unemployment and Underemployment ........................................................................................................... 89

7.30 Child Labour ..................................................................................................................................................... 90

7.31 Persons Engaged by Activity and Average Size of Establishment................................................................... 90

CHAPTER 8 .................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

Education .................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

8.01 Literacy Rate of Population 7 years and over .................................................................................................. 93

8.02 Adult Literacy Rate (15 yrs and over) .............................................................................................................. 93

8.03 Zila wise Literacy Rate of Population 7+ years ............................................................................................... 94

8.04 Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) for Primary School ........................................................................................... 96

8.05 Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School .......................................................................................................... 96

8.06 Drop-out Rate for Primary School.................................................................................................................... 97

8.07 Ratio of Female and Male Teachers in Primary School .................................................................................. 98

8.08 Gross Enrolment Rate, Completion Rate and Dropout Rate at the Secondary Level ..................................... 99

8.09 Education Gender Parity ................................................................................................................................... 99

8.10 Ratio of Women and Men Teachers and Students in Secondary School ...................................................... 101

8.11 Performance of Girls Student in the Secondary Level ................................................................................... 101

8.12 Number of Teachers and Students of Colleges .............................................................................................. 102

8.13 Performance of Girls Student in the HSC Examination ................................................................................ 102

8.14 Primary Training Institute (PTI), Teachers and Trainees .............................................................................. 102

8.15 Teachers Training College (TTC), Teachers and Students ............................................................................ 103

8.16 Physical Education College, Teachers and Students ...................................................................................... 103

8.17 Teachers and Students of Universities ........................................................................................................... 104

8.18 Teachers and Students of Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET .......................... 105

8.19 Teachers and Students in the Medical College .............................................................................................. 105

8.20 Teachers and Students in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University ........................................... 106

8.21 Teachers and Students in the Agricultural University ................................................................................... 106

CHAPTER 9 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 107

Income, Expenditure and Poverty ................................................................................................................................................. 107

9.01 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household ......................................................................................... 107

9.02 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household by Main Source of Income ............................................. 107

9.03 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household by Level of Education .................................................... 108

9.04 Household Income by Number of Members and Earners .............................................................................. 108

9.05 Intake of Food ................................................................................................................................................. 110

9.06 Income and Expenditure of Household .......................................................................................................... 111

9.07 Per Capita Income and Expenditure of the Women Headed Household ....................................................... 112

9.08 Annual Education Expenditure ....................................................................................................................... 113

9.09 Type of Education Expenditure Incurred by Sex and Residence .................................................................. 114

9.10 Income and Expenditure of the Households who Received Remittance ....................................................... 114

9.11 Access to Credit by the Grameen Bank .......................................................................................................... 115

9.12 Micro-Enterprise Loan Delivered by Grameen Bank (GB) ........................................................................... 117

CHAPTER 10 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 119

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT ........................................................................................................................................................ 119

10.01 Electoral Participation ................................................................................................................................... 119

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10.02 Participation of Women in Union Parishad .................................................................................................. 120

10.03 Participation of Women in Upazila Parishad ............................................................................................... 120

10.04 Participation of Women in Cabinet .............................................................................................................. 122

10.05 Women Participation in the Civil Service .................................................................................................... 123

10.06 Civil Officers and Staff in the Ministries, Directorates, Autonomous Bodies and Corporations ............... 124

10.07 Officers and Staff in Ministry of Home Affairs ........................................................................................... 125

10.08 Women Participation in Supreme Court ...................................................................................................... 127

10.09 Participation of Women in Dewani (Civil) Court by Division .................................................................... 127

10.10 Women Participation in Co-operative Society ............................................................................................. 128

10.11 Women Participation in Nursing Profession ................................................................................................ 128

10.12 Women Role in Decision-making at the Household Level ......................................................................... 129

10.13 Attitude of Men towards Women Freedom of Movement ........................................................................... 130

CHAPTER 11 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 133

Violence against Women ................................................................................................................................................................. 133

11.01 Cases of Reported Violence against Women and Children ......................................................................... 133

11.02 Cases of Violence against Women and Children by Month ........................................................................ 134

11.03 Progress on Anti-trafficking Measures ......................................................................................................... 136

11.04 Disposal of Cases Relating to Trafficking in Women and Children for Monitoring .................................. 138

11.05 Disposal of Cases .......................................................................................................................................... 138

CHAPTER-12 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 139

MDG Indicators and Gender Dimension of SAARC Countries ................................................................................................ 139

12.1 Selected Indicators of MDG ........................................................................................................................... 139

12.02 Differentials of Selected Indicators Among SAARC Countries. ................................................................ 144

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................................... 151

Annexure-A .................................................................................................................................................................................. 153

Constitutional Provision on Women Rights ............................................................................................................ 153

Annexure-B .................................................................................................................................................................................. 155

Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) ................................ 155

Annexure-C .................................................................................................................................................................................. 169

The Dhaka Declaration for Eliminating Violence against Women in South Asia 2003 ........................................ 169

Annexure-D .................................................................................................................................................................................. 173

Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action (PEA) ......................................................................................... 173

Appendix-E .................................................................................................................................................................................. 177

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE .................................................................................................................................. 177

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 02.01: Census adjusted population (million) distribution by sex 1974-2011 .................................................................. 9

Table 02.02: Percentage distribution of women and men by broad age groups, 1981- 2011 .................................................. 9

Table 02.03: Percentage distribution of population by age group, sex and residence, 1981-2011 ........................................ 10

Table 02.04: Sex ratio by residence, 1981-2011 .......................................................................................................................... 12

Table 02.05: Percentage distribution of households by sex of household heads and residence, 1981-2011 ...................... 12

Table 02.06: Trend in average household size by sex of household heads and residence, 2000-2010 .................................. 13

Table 02.07: Distribution of households by size of land owned and average number of members by sex, 2005-2010 ....... 14

Table 02.08: Percentage distribution of households by sex of head and percentage distribution of earners by sex and

residence, 2005 & 2010 ............................................................................................................................................ 14

Table 02.10: In and out migration rate per 1000 population by sex, 1985-2010 ..................................................................... 16

Table 02.11: In-migration rate by sex and direction per 1000 population, 2008-2010 .......................................................... 16

Table 02.12: Percentage distribution of migrants classified by reasons and direction of migration by sex for 2008-2010 17

Table 03.01: Mean age at marriage of women and men by residence, 1985-2010 .................................................................. 19

Table 03.02: Median age and singulate mean age at marriage, 2010 ....................................................................................... 19

Table 03.02.1: Percentage of women aged 15-49 in marriage before their 15th birthday, women aged 20-49 in marriage

before their 18th birthday and women aged 15-19 currently married, by division and area, 2006. .............. 20

Table 03.02.2: Percentage distribution of ever married women (15-49 yrs) who married before their 15th and 18th years

of ages ........................................................................................................................................................................ 21

Table 03.02.3: Percentage of women aged 15-49 in marriage before their 15th birthday, women aged 20-49 in marriage

before their 18th birthday and women aged 15-19 currently married, by educational status, 2006. ............. 21

Table 03.02.4: Percentage of women aged 15-49 in marriage before their 15th birthday, women aged 20-49 in marriage

before their 18th birthday and women aged 15-19 currently married, by wealth index, 2006. ....................... 22

Table 03.03: Proportion of women 20-24 years old who were married before age 18 for the year 2006 and 2011 ............ 22

Table 03.04.1: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 15-19 according to the age difference with their

husbands by division, 2006 ...................................................................................................................................... 23

Table 03.04.2: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 15-19 according to the age difference with their

husbands by area, 2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 23

Table 03.04.3: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 15-19 according to age difference with their

husbands by area, 2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 23

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 20-24 according to age difference with their

husbands by division, Bangladesh, 2006 ................................................................................................................ 24

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 20-24 according to age difference with their

husbands by area, 2006 ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 20-24 according to age difference with their

husbands by education of women and girls, 2006 ................................................................................................ 25

Table 03.05: Marital status of population aged 10 years and above by sex, 1981-2011 ......................................................... 25

Table 03.06: Total fertility rate (TFR) per women by residence, 1985-2010 .......................................................................... 26

Table 03.07: Age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) per 1000 women, 2002-2010 ........................................................................ 27

Table 03.08: Total marital fertility rate by residence, 1991-2010 ............................................................................................. 27

Table 03.09: General fertility rate by residence, 1985-2010 ...................................................................................................... 28

Table 03.10: Trend in mean number of children ever born by age group, 2000, 2004, 2007 & 2011. ................................. 28

Table 03.11.1: Crude divorce rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 2002-2010 ...................................................... 29

Table 03.11.2: Crude separation rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 2002-10 ..................................................... 29

Table 03.12.1: Age-specific divorce rate by age- group and sex, 2005-2010 .............................................................................. 29

Table 03.12.2: Age-specific separation rate by age group and sex, 2005-2010 .......................................................................... 30

Table 03.13.1: Trends in contraceptive use by year and residence, 1990-2010 (current user) ............................................... 30

Table 03.13.2: Age specific contraceptive use , 2005-2010 (current user) ................................................................................. 30

Table 03.13.4: Contraceptive prevalence rate by methods and residence, 2008–2010 ............................................................. 31

Table 04.01: Crude death rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 1981-2010 .......................................................... 33

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Table 04.02: Age-specific death rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 2008 & 2010 ............................................ 33

Table 04.03: Neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and locality for 1981-2010 ............................................... 35

Table 04.04: Post neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 1981-2010 .......................................... 35

Table 04.05: Infant (<1 year) mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 1981-2010 ..................................... 36

Table 04.06: Child mortality rate (1-4 years) by sex and residence, 1981-2010 ...................................................................... 36

Table 04.07: Under 5 mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 1982-2010 .................................................. 37

Table 04.08: Maternal mortality ratio by residence, 1986-2010 ............................................................................................... 37

Table 04.09: Distribution of causes of maternal mortality by residence, 2009 and 2010 ....................................................... 38

Table 04.10: Principal causes of death per 100,000 populations by sex and residence, 2004- 2010 ..................................... 38

Table 04.11: Percentage distribution of death of causes by sex and residence, 2010 ............................................................. 40

Table 04.12: Expectation of life at birth by sex and residence, 1981-2010 .............................................................................. 41

Table 04.13: Abridged life table for Bangladesh population by sex, 2010 ............................................................................... 42

Table 04.14: Percentage of breast-feeding of infant and young children by residence, 2006 ................................................ 42

Table 04.15: Prevalence of malnutrition (WHO 2005 GRS) in children aged <5 years by sex and area of residence,

2000-12....................................................................................................................................................................... 43

Table 4.16: Prevalence of low birth weight by sex and residence, 2003-2004 ......................................................................... 44

Table 04.17: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months immunized against BCG, DPT3, Polio3 and Measles by sex,

1995, 2006 and 2011 ................................................................................................................................................. 44

Table 04.18: Percentage distribution of children received high doses of vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months by

sex and residence, 2006 ............................................................................................................................................ 45

Table 04.19: Percentage distribution of mothers aged 15-49 who gave birth in the three years preceding the survey by

receiving antenatal care, 2004, 2007 and 2011. ..................................................................................................... 45

Table 04.20: Percentage distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of

personnel assisting during delivery and their place of delivery, 2006,2007, 2009 and 2011. .......................... 46

Table 05.01: Distribution of population suffered during last 12 months from chronic diseases by sex and residence,

2000& 2010 ............................................................................................................................................................... 47

Table 05.02: Average duration of ailment by sex, residence and type of diseases suffered in the last 12 months, 2005 and

2010 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 48

Table 05.03: Percent of treatment recipient by sex, residence and type of treatment, 2005 and 2010................................. 49

Table 05.04.1: Prevalence of children aged 0-59 months with pneumonia and treatment taken from a health care

provider, 2006 ........................................................................................................................................................... 49

Table 05.04.2:Prevalence of children <5 years with fever and ARI for whom treatment sought from a health facility or

medically trained provider by age, sex and residence, 2004 and 2007 .............................................................. 50

Table 05.04.3: Percentage of children <5 years with diarrhea who were given oral re-hydration therapy (ORT) by sex

and residence, 2007 and 2011 ................................................................................................................................. 51

Table 05.05: Distribution of patients by their sources of getting medicine,2000, 2005 and 2010 ......................................... 51

Table 05.06: Average days required consulting doctor for the first time after ailment by sex and residence, 2000, 2005

and 2010 .................................................................................................................................................................... 52

Table 05.07: Average waiting time (minutes) for getting the service / treatment personnel by patients, sex and residence,

2000, 2005 and 2010 ................................................................................................................................................. 53

Table 05.08: Patients preference of service/treatment by reasons, sex and residence, 2000, 2005 and 2010 ...................... 53

Table 05.09: Average medical expenditure per patient (Tk) in the preceding 30 days by sex and residence, 2000, 2005

and 2010 .................................................................................................................................................................... 54

Table 05.10: Reasons for non-treatment in the ailment suffered preceding 30 days by sex 2000, 2005 and 2010. ............. 54

Table 05.11.1: Smoking rates by sex and residence, 1995 and 2009 ........................................................................................... 55

Table 05.11.2: Percentage of adults 15 years and above by smoking status, residence & sex, 2009 ...................................... 55

Table 05.11.3: Percentage of adults 15 years and above by use of smokeless tobacco, by sex, residence, 2009 .................... 56

Table 6.01.1: Age-sex distribution of disabled persons ................................................................................................................ 57

Table 06.02.1: Crude disability rate per1000 population by sex and residence, 1991, 2004 and 2011 ................................... 58

Table 06.03:1: Age-specific disability rate per 1000 population by sex, 1991, 2004 and 2011 ................................................ 58

Table 06.04.1: Percentage distribution of disability by causes and sex, 2002-2010 ................................................................. 59

Table 06.05.1: Proportion of disability (%) by type and sex in 2002-2010 ................................................................................. 59

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Table 06.06.1: Crude activity rate of all population and disabled population, 1991, 2004 and 2011 ..................................... 60

Table 6.06.2: Refined activity rate of disabled and all population by sex, 1991, 2004 and 2011............................................. 60

Table 06.07.1: Percentage of children aged 2-9 years with disability by types, sex and residence, 2006 ............................... 61

Table 6.08.1: Percentage of children <18 years by types of injury by sex and residence, 2006 .............................................. 61

Table 07.01: Labour force aged 15 years and over by sex and residence, 1995-2010 ............................................................ 63

Table 07.02: Annual average labour force growth rate by sex and residence, 2002-03 and 2005-06 to 2010 ..................... 64

Table 07.03: Crude activity rates by sex and residence, 2005-06 and 2010 ............................................................................. 65

Table 07.04: Refined activity rate by sex and residence, 2005-06 and 2010 ............................................................................ 65

Table 07.05: Trends in age-specific labour force participation rate by sex, 2000-2010 ......................................................... 66

Table 07.06: Working age population 15 years and over by activity status, sex and residence,2002-03 ............................. 67

Table 07.07: Working age population by broad economic category by sex and residence, 2005-2006 and 2010 ............... 67

Table 07.08: Working age population 15 years and over engaged in household work by sex and residence, 2002-03,

2005-06 and 2010 ...................................................................................................................................................... 68

Table 07.09: Labour force participation aged 15 years and over by level of education, sex and residence, 2000-03, 2005-

06 and 2010 ............................................................................................................................................................... 69

Table 07.10: Employed persons 15 years and over by sector of employment, sex and residence, 2005-06 and 2010 ........ 70

Table 07.10.1: Employed population aged 15 years and over by sex and residence, 1999-2010 ............................................. 71

Table 07.11: Distribution of employed women 15 years and over by major occupation 1991-2010 .................................... 71

Table 07.12: Employed persons 15 years and over by occupation, sex and residence, 2002-03, 2005-06 and 2010 ......... 72

Table 07.13: Distribution of employed person 15 years and over by employment status, sex and residence, 2005-06 and

2010 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 73

Table 07.14: Employed person 15 years and over by sex and economic sectors, 2005-06 and 2010 .................................... 74

Table 07.15: Distribution of employed persons 15 years and over by major industries by sex and residence, 2005-06 and

2010 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 75

Table 07.16: Percentage distribution of employed persons by weekly hours worked by sex and residence, 2005-2006

and 2010 .................................................................................................................................................................... 77

Table 07.17: Average annual growth rate by industries and sex, 2005-2006 & 2010 .............................................................. 77

Table 07.18: Average weekly hours worked of employed persons 15 years and over by status, sex and residence, 2005-

2006 and 2010 ........................................................................................................................................................... 78

Table 07.19: Average weekly hours worked by industry, gender and residence, 2005-06 & 2010 ....................................... 80

Table 07.20: Employed persons 15 years and over by average weekly hours worked by occupation, sex & residence,

2005-2006 and 2010. ................................................................................................................................................. 81

Table 07.21: Employment in garments industry by gender, 2001-2010 ................................................................................... 82

Table 07.22: Overseas employment by sex and zila (district), 2008-2011 ............................................................................... 83

Table 07.23: Percent distribution of salaried workers by monthly income by sex and residence, 2002-2003 ,2005-06,

2010 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 85

Table 07.24: Average wage rate (Taka) of day labourers (15 years and above) by gender and residence, 1999-2000,

2002-03 and 2010 ...................................................................................................................................................... 86

Table 07.25: Percentage distribution of day labour by weekly income and sex, 2005-06 and 2010 ...................................... 86

Table 07.26: Average daily wage rate of agriculture labour by sex. 2008-11 ........................................................................... 87

Table 07.27: Unemployment rate of population (15+) by sex and residence, 2002-03, 2005-06 and 2010 ........................... 88

Table 07.28: Percentage of unemployment rates by age groups, sex and residence, 2005-06 and 2010. ............................. 89

Table 07.29: Unemployed persons and underemployment rates of population aged 15 years and over by sex and

residence, 2002-2003 and 2005-06 .......................................................................................................................... 90

Table 07.30: Child labourer and economic activities by girls and boys, 1988, 2005-06 ......................................................... 90

Table 07.31: Total establishments and persons engaged by sex, activity and establishment size ......................................... 91

Table 07.32.1: Average daily wage rate & monthly earnings of non-farm workers by industry, 2009-10. ........................... 91

Table 07.32.2: Average daily wage rate & monthly income of non-farm workers in some specific services by occupation,

2009-10....................................................................................................................................................................... 92

Table 08.01: Literacy rate of population 7 years and over by sex and residence, 1961-2011 ................................................. 93

Table 08.02: Adult literacy rate of population aged 15+ by sex, 2081– 2011 .......................................................................... 94

Table 08.03: Literacy rate of population (7 years and above) by zila and sex 1991-2011 ....................................................... 94

xiv

Table 08.04: Gross enrolment rate for primary school by sex and residence, 2002-2010 ..................................................... 96

Table 08.05: Net enrolment rate for primary school by sex and residence , 2002-2010 ........................................................ 96

Table 08.06.1: Dropout rate for primary school cycle by sex and residence 2002-2010 .......................................................... 97

Table 08.06.2: Gross and net enrolment rate by sex in secondary school, 2010 ....................................................................... 97

Table 08.06.3: Secondary cycle completion rate, dropout rate and coefficient of efficiency by sex in secondary school,

2010 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 97

Table 08.06.4: Gross and net enrolment rate in college (11 and 12 class) , 2010 ...................................................................... 97

Table 08.06.5: Dropout and completion rate in college (XI-XII) ................................................................................................ 98

Table 08.06.6: Number of college, teacher and enrolment by type, 2010 .................................................................................. 98

Table 08.07: Number of teachers in primary schools by sex and percent of women, 2000-2010 .......................................... 98

Table 08.08: Gross enrolment rate, completion rate and dropout rate at secondary level,2002-2010 ................................. 99

Table 08.09: Ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education by district, 2009 ...................................... 99

Table 08.10: Number of teachers and students by sex in secondary school and their ratio, 2001-2010 ........................... 101

Table 08.11.1: Performance of girls student in the SSC examination, 2004-2010 .................................................................. 101

Table 08.11.2: Performance of girls student in SSC (vocational) examination, 2004-2010 ................................................... 101

Table 08.12: Number of teachers and students of college by type & sex, 2005,2009 and 2010. ......................................... 102

Table 08.13: Performance of girls student in the HSC examination, 2004-2010 .................................................................. 102

Table 08.14: Number of PTI, teachers, and trainees by sex, 2004-2010 ................................................................................ 103

Table 08.15: Number of TTC, teachers and students by sex, 2004-2010 .............................................................................. 103

Table 08.16: Number of Physical Education College, teachers and students by sex, 2004-2010 ....................................... 104

Table 08.17: Number of teachers and students by type of universities and sex, 2004-2009 ................................................ 104

Table 08.18: Number of teacher and students in the Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology by sex, 2000-

2010 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 105

Table 08.19: Number of teachers and students in the medical college by sex, 2004-2009 .................................................... 105

Table 08.20: Number of teachers and students in the BSMMU by sex, 2006-2010 .............................................................. 106

Table 08.21: Number of teachers and students in the Agricultural University by sex, 2001-2010 ..................................... 106

Table 9.01: Incidence of poverty by sex of head of household, 2000, 2005 and 2010 ........................................................... 107

Table 09.02: Incidence of poverty by occupation of head of households, 2010 ..................................................................... 108

Table 09.03: Incidence of poverty by level of education of head of households, 2010 .......................................................... 108

Table 09.04.1: Average number of members and earners and monthly income per household by sex, 2005 and 2010 ... 109

Table 09.04.2: Average number of members and earners per household, average monthly income per household by sex

and residence, 2010 ................................................................................................................................................ 110

Table 09.04.3: Average monthly household income by head of household by sex, 2010 ......................................................... 110

Table 09.05: Average per capita per day food intake (grams), 2010 ....................................................................................... 110

Table 09.06: Average monthly income of women and men headed households by monthly per capita income groups,

2005 and 2010 ......................................................................................................................................................... 111

Table 09.07: Monthly per capita income and expenditure of the women headed household by residence, 1999,2004 and

2010 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 113

Table 09.08: Per household and per capita annual expenditure on education by sex and residence, 2005 and 2010 ...... 113

Table 09.09: Percentage distribution of monthly educational expenditure by types of expenditure, sex and residence,

2005 and 2010 ......................................................................................................................................................... 114

Table 09.10.1: Average household income by sex of the head of households received remittance, 2010 ............................. 114

Table 09.10.2: Per capita income by sex of head of household whose sources of income from remittance, 2010 .............. 115

Table 09.10.3: Per capita expenditure by sex of head of household whose sources of income from remittance, 2010 ..... 115

Table 09.11:1 Disbursement of loans listed under broad categories of business activities by sex, 2007 – 2010 ......... 116

Table 09.11.2 Proportion with access to credit by sex and residence, 2010 ............................................................................ 117

Table 09.12: Disbursement of micro-enterprise loans under categories of activities by sex, 2007 – 2010 ......................... 117

Table 10.01: Population Participation in National Assembly, 1973-2011 .............................................................................. 120

Table 10.02: Women and men participation in Union Parishad, 2008 .................................................................................. 120

Table 10.03: Women and men participation in Upazila Parishad, 2009 and 2010 ............................................................... 120

Table 10.03.1: Elected women and men in Union Parishad and Upazila Parishad, 2011-12 ............................................... 121

xv

Table 10.04: Women and men participation in the ministerial level, 1972-2011 .................................................................. 123

Table 10.05.1: Officers in the ministry by sex and by category-2006, 2008 and 2010 ............................................................ 123

Table 10.05.2: Employees of different ministries, directorates and corporations by sex, 2009 and 2010 ............................. 124

Table 10.06: Number of women and men civil officers and staff in the ministries, directorates, autonomous bodies and

corporations, 2006 and 2010 ................................................................................................................................. 124

Table 10.07: Officers and staff in ministry of home affairs by sex and categories, 2008-2010 ........................................... 125

Table 10.07.1: Officers and staff in ministry of defense by sex and categories, 2008-2010 ................................................... 126

Table 10.07.2: Employees in police force by sex and categories, 2008-2010 ............................................................................ 126

Table 10.08: Lawyers ( in Supreme Court) by sex, 2008 ......................................................................................................... 127

Table 10.09: Lawyers in civil court by sex and by division, 2008-09...................................................................................... 127

Table 10.10: Number of members in the cooperative society by sex and division, 2006- 2010 ........................................... 128

Table 10.11: Number of women and men officers and staff in the nursing profession, 2008-2009 ..................................... 129

Table 10.12: Women participation in specific household decision-making by type and residence,2005 ........................... 129

Table 10.13: Women’s freedom of movement by background characteristics, 2004 ............................................................ 130

Table 10.13.1: Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by freedom of movement to go to a hospital

or health center, according to background characteristics, 2007 ..................................................................... 131

Table 11.01: Cases of reported violence against women and children by categories 2002- 2011......................................... 133

Table 11.02: Number of reported cases of violence against women and children by month during 2005-2010 ............... 134

Table 11.03: Progress report on anti-trafficking measures specially trafficking in women and children from 15 June

2004 to 15 March 2007 ........................................................................................................................................... 136

Table 11.04: Disposal of cases relating to trafficking in women and children, 2006-2007 ................................................... 138

Table 11.05: Disposal of cases for five years (2001-2005) ......................................................................................................... 138

Table 12.01: Selected MDG and PRS indicators disaggregated by sex. ................................................................................. 140

Table 12.02.01:Estimated population among SAARC countries, 2011 ..................................................................................... 144

Table 12.02.02:Composition of population among SAARC countries, 2011 ............................................................................ 144

Table 12.02.03: Differentials in expectation of life at birth (ex0) among SAARC countries, 2007 and 2011 ....................... 145

Table 12.02.04: Legal age and singulate mean age at marriage among SAARC countries .................................................... 145

Table 12.02.05: Differentials in adults (15+) and youth (15-24 years) literacy rate among SAARC countries 2009 ......... 145

Table 12.02.06: Differentials in estimated earned income in U$ by gender among SAARC countries, 2007 ...................... 146

Table 12.02.07: Maternal mortality ratio, infant and under 5 mortality rate among SAARC countries, 2008 ................. 146

Table 12.02.08: Contraceptive prevalence rate of currently married women (15-49 years ................................................... 146

Table 12.02.09: Adolescent fertility and total fertility rate, 2010 .............................................................................................. 147

Table 12.02.10: Net enrolment ratio in primary education 2009-10 ........................................................................................ 147

Table 12.02.11: Net enrolment ratio in secondary education ..................................................................................................... 147

Table 12.02.12: Net enrolment ratio in tertiary education ......................................................................................................... 148

Table 12.02.13: Percentage of female teacher in primary, secondary and tertiary education ............................................... 148

Table 12.02.14: Adult economic activity rates and percentage of women in adult labour force, 2010 ................................. 148

Table 12.02.15: Distribution of labour force by status in employment ..................................................................................... 149

Table 12.02.16: Unemployment rate of adult population aged 15+ ........................................................................................... 149

Table 12.02.17: Women in parliament .......................................................................................................................................... 149

xvi

xvii

Abbreviations

ARI Acute Respiratory Infection

ASDR Age-specific Death Rate

ASFR Age-specific Fertility Rate

BANBEIS Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics

BAZ BMI-for-age z-score

BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

BDHS Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

BGMEA Bangladesh Garment Manufactures and Exporters Association

BMET Bangladesh Manpower Employment and Training

BMI Body Mass Index

BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

BUET Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology

CBN Cost of Basic Needs

CBR Crude Birth Rate

CDC Center for Disease Control

CDR Crude Death Rate

CED Chronic Energy Deficiency

CLF Child Labour Force

CMNS Child and Mother Nutrition Survey

CEDAW Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women

CMR Child Mortality Rate

CMNS Child and Mother Nutrition Survey

CNS Child Nutrition Survey

CPR Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

CPS Contraceptive Prevalence Survey

CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child

DFID Department for International Development

DPT Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus

EBR Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate

EPI Expanded Program on Immunization

EPR Economic Participation Rate

FWA Family Welfare Assistant

FWV Family Welfare Visitor

GB Grameen Bank

GER Gross Enrolment Rate

GFR General Fertility Rate

GPI Gender Parity Index

GRS Growth Reference Standard

HA Health Assistant

HAZWHO Height-for-Age z-score determined using WHO 2005 GRS

xviii

HAZNCHS Height-for-Age z-score determined using NCHS 1977 GRS

HIES Household Income and Expenditure Survey

HH Households

HKI Helen Keller International

HNPSP Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program

ICPD International Conference on Population and Development

INFS Institute of Nutrition and Food Science

IMPS Integrated Multipurpose Sampling Frame

IMR Infant Mortality Rate

IYCF Infant and Young Child Feeding

LBW Low Birth Weight

LFS Labour Force Survey

LG Laban Gur (Mollases + Salt Solution)

MA Medical Assistant

MAM Mean Age at Marriage

MDGs Millennium Development Goals

MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

MMR Maternal Mortality Rate

MOHFW Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

MOWCA Ministry of Women and Children Affairs

MUAC Mid-Upper Arm Circumference

MUACZ MUAC-for-age z-score

MSCW Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women

NAR Net Attendance Ratio

NCHS National Center for Health Statistics

NGO Non-government Organization

NID National Immunization Day

NMR Neonatal Mortality Rate

NNP National Nutrition Program

NPA National Plan of Action

NPNL Non- Pregnant and Non-Lactating Women

NVAC National Vitamin A Campaign

OPV Oval Polio Vaccine

ORS Oral Re-hydration Solution

ORT Oral Re-hydration Therapy

PCA Principal Components Analysis

PCU Passport Checking Unit

PRS Poverty Reduction Strategy

PSU Primary Sampling Unit

PTI Primary Training Institute

RAB Rapid Action Battalion

SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SBA Skilled Birth Attendant

xix

SVRS Sample Vital Registration System

TFR Total Fertility Rate

TBA Traditional Birth Attendant

TMFR Total Marital Fertility Rate

TTC Teachers Training College

UGC University Grant Commission

UN United Nations

UNICEF United Nations Children Emergency Fund

UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNSD United Nations Statistics Division

VAW Violence Against Women

WAZWHO Weight-for-Age z-score determined using WHO 2005 GRS

WAZNCHS Weight-for-Age z-score determined using NCHS 1977 GRS

WHO World Health Organization

WHZWHO Weight-for-Height z-score determined using WHO 2005 GRS

WHZNCHS Weight-for-Height z-score determined using NCHS 1977 GR

WID Women in Development

xx

xxi

                                    Executive Summary

Around 50% of total populations of Bangladesh are women. In the household level the proportion of

women head is only 15.6% and average size of women headed household is 3.53 as against 4.52 for men.

Percent of earners among women household members increased from 12.9 in 2005 to 15.0 in 2010.

Marriage is a very popular social event in the context of Bangladesh where early marriage is gradually

decreasing as an impact of enactment of laws, uplifting of women education, participation of women in

socio-economic activities and technological innovation. Mean age at marriage is 18.7 years for women as

against 23.9 year for men. It may be noted that, the percentage of widowed/divorced is much higher

among women (8.0%) compared to men (0.6%). The total fertility rate has reduced significantly over the

years where it stood at 2.12 per ever-married women in 2010. The marital fertility rate is 3.33 and

general fertility rate per 1000 women of childbearing age is 71. The average number of children ever

born for women of reproductive age (15-49) stands at 2.2. The use of contraceptive rate is 56.75%.

The crude death rate for women stood at 5.0 per 1000 population as against 6.2 per 1000 population for

male in 2010. The infant mortality for girls was 35 per 1000 live births as against 38 for boys per 1000

live births. The maternal mortality per 1000 live births stands at 2.16. The expectation of life for women

was 68.8 year compared to 66.6 for men in 2010.

Exclusive breast-feeding was 51.5% for girls 0-3 months as against 48.0% for boys. Wasting was 13.4%

for both boys and girls of age less than 5 years and stunting was 42.0% for girls as against 40.5% for

boys. Low birth weight (<2500 gram) was 37.9% among girls compared to 33.3% among boys.

Immunization against measles for girls (aged 12-23 months) was 86.8% as against 88.3% for boys. Such

rate in case of BCG was 97.6% for girls as against 98.1% for boys. Percentage of children aged 6-59

months receiving vitamin-A supplementation in the 6 months were 59.5% for girls as against 59% for

boys. Antennal care was received by 54.87% women who gave birth in the preceding 3 years and 31.3%

received assistance at delivery from medical doctor. Gastric ulcer was the most common chronic ailment

for women and men. As high as 24.23% women and 23.77% men suffered from this disease in 2010.

The treatment in the health ailment has been mainly received from compounder/pharmacy and private

doctor. The corresponding percentages were 39.2% and 24.54% for women compared to 41.35% and

24.37% for men. The preferred service for treatment is accounted on the basis of distance and quality of

treatment available for both women and men. Per patient health cost was TK.465 for women and TK. 407

for men (TK. 396) in 2010.

The prevalence of disability per 1000 was estimated at 13 for women and at 15.2 for men. The common

type of disability was deaf and dumb, mental disorder, cripple etc. and the variation between women and

men was not significant. Generally child injury (<18 years) was high among boys (4.65%) compared to

girls (2.04%). Women’s participation in labour force is still low where out of 56.7 million labour force

only 17.2 million (35.98%) are women. However, women’s growth rate in labour force is much higher

than men. It was 8.7% for women as against 1.4% for men in 2010. At aggregate level, women labour

force in informal sector was 92.3% and in formal sector it was 7.7%. On the other hand, informal and

formal sector labour force participation for men were 85.5% and 14.5% respectively. Almost the same

pattern was observed in urban and rural areas. In 2010, 64.84% women were found to be engaged in

agriculture sector, followed by 35.2% in non-agriculture, 21.9% in service sector, 11.8% in

manufacturing sectors and rest were engaged in other industries. Average weekly hours spent on

paid/unpaid work for employed person aged 15 years and above is 35 for females against 51 for males. It

is praiseworthy that 2.88 million (80%) of the total manpower of 3.6 million are employed in the

BGMEA member garment factories. It is frustrating that daily women’s average wage rate, as percentage

of men’s is 69%

xxii

The literacy rate 7 years and over was observed 49.4% for women as against 54.1% for men. The net

enrolment rate in primary education for girls is 87.8% compared to 85.6% for boys. On the other hand

dropout rate for girls are less (12.2%) than boys (14.4%). The ratio of women teacher in primary school

is increasing day by day. It was 33.9 in 2000 and increased to 49.4 in 2010. The gross enrolment in

secondary school (grade 6-10) is higher among girls than boys. It was 63.22% for girls as against 51.19%

for boys. Gross enrolment in tertiary education is lower among women than men. It was 4.4% for women

as against 13.3% for men. Gender parity index in primary, secondary and tertiary level enrolment are

1.02, 1.14 and 0.33 respectively.

Interestingly, the poverty incidence of women headed household is much lower than men headed

household, 26.6% for women versus 32.1% for men headed. This result is highly influenced by male

members living abroad making the women the head of household. If we exclude such cases the results

would have been opposite. On the other hand, the average monthly income of women headed household

was TK 9,725 as against TK.11,763 for men headed household. It is observed that of the total education

expenditure per household, 46.6% is incurred for women as against 53.5% for men. The participation of

women in public office from national parliament to union council has increased over time. The

percentage of women employment in public sector has also increased. Violence against women is

increasing over the year though the occurrence of acid throwing is decreasing to some extent over the

years.

xxiii

Selected Indicators of Gender Statistics by Domain

A set of 52 indicators on Gender Statistics recommended by UN Statistical Commission (UNSC) have been

presented in the table below. Due to unavailability of data, it has been possible to incorporate only 43 out of 52

indicators.

Sl.No Indicator Gender Year Findings Source

I. Economic structures, participation in productive activities and access to resources

1 Average weekly hours spent on unpaid

domestic work

- - - Data not available

2 Average weekly hours spent of employed

persons age 15 years and over for paid and

unpaid work combined

Women 2010 35 LFS,BBS

Men 51

3 Labour force participation rates for 15-24

years age group

Women 2010 35.4% LFS,BBS

Men 60.5%

Labour force participation rates for 15+ Women 2010 36% LFS,BBS

Men 82.5%

4 Percentage of employed who are ownaccount

workers

Women 2010 25.1% LFS,BBS

Men 47.5%

5 Percentage of employed who are working as

contributing family workers

Women 2010 56.3% LFS,BBS

Men 7.1%

6 Proportion of employed who are employer Women 2010 0.07% LFS,BBS

Men 0.20%

7 Percentage of firms owned by women - - - -

8 i) Percentage distribution of the employed

population (informal)

Women

Men

2010 92.3%

85.5%

LFS,BBS

ii) Percentage distribution of the employed

population(formal)

Women 2010 14.6% LFS,BBS

Men 7.7%

9 Informal employment as a percentage of

total non-agricultural employment

Women 2010 32.5% LFS,BBS

Men 51.2%

10 Youth(15-29) unemployment rate Women 2010 8.5% LFS,BBS

Men 6.8%

11 Proportion with access to micro credit Women 2010 61.6 HIES,BBS

Men 38.4

12 Proportion of (adult) population who own

land

- - - -

13 i) Gender gap in wages (with food). It is

women's average wages as percentage of

men's

2010 69% Wage Rate Survey,

BBS

ii) Gender gap in wages (without food) 2010 67%

14 Percentage of employed persons working

part-time(<15 hours / week)

Women 2010 25.8% LFS,BBS

Men 2.6%

xxiv

Sl.No Indicator Gender Year Findings Source

15 Employment rate of persons aged 25-49 with

a child under age 3 living in a household and

with no children living in the household

- - - Data not available

16 Proportion of children under age 3 in formal

care

- - - -

17 Percentage of the population 15+ who are

Internet users

Women 2010 0.97% Literacy Survey, BBS

Men 2.0%

18 Proportion of the population who are mobile

cellular telephone users (Based on

registration)

Women 2010 7.5 Robi

Men 92.5

19 Percent of household access to Radio Women

Men

2010 31.3%

35.6%

Literacy Survey, BBS

Television Women

Men

2010 56.1%

62.0%

II. Education

20 Literacy rate of persons aged 15-24 years

old

Women 2010 81.4% SVRS,BBS

Men 78.1%

21 Adjusted net enrolment rate in primary

education

Girls 2010 87.8% SVRS,BBS

Boys 85.6%

Drop out rate by sex at primary school cycle

(Class I-V)

Girls 2010 12.2% SVRS,BBS

Boys 14.4%

22 Gross enrolment rate in secondary education Women 2010 63.2% BANBEIS

Men 51.2%

23 Gross enrolment rate in tertiary education Women 2010 4.4% BANBEIS & UGC

Men 13.3%

24 Gender parity index in primary secondary

and tertiary level enrolment

Primary 2010 1.02 BANBEIS

Secondary 1.14

Tertiary 0.33

25 Share of graduates in science, and

engineering, manufacturing and construction

tertiary level, who are women

-- -- -- Data not available

26 Proportion of women among third-level

teachers or professors (College, Degree/

Hons. And Masters)

Women 2009 25% BANBEIS

27 Net intake rate to primary education Girls 2009 68.4% MICS

Boys 65.3%

28 Primary Completion rate Girls 2010 62.0% World Bank report-

Boys 55.6% 2010

29 Secondary completion rate Girls 2010 46.2% BANBEIS

Boys 39.5%

30 Transition rate primary to secondary Girls 2005 99.0% Primary School

Boys 92.2% census-2009

xxv

Sl.No Indicator Gender Year Findings Source

31 Education attainment of population aged 25

and over

Women 2001

Census

47.8% Pop. Census

Men 55.3%

III. Health and related service

32 Contraceptive prevalence among currently

married women aged 15-49

Women 2010 56.7%

-

SVRS,BBS

Men

33 Under-five mortality rate per 1000 live births Girls 2010 43% SVRS,BBS

Boys 50%

34 Maternal mortality ratio. 2010 2.16 SVRS,BBS

35 Antenatal care coverage 2011 54.6% NIPORT

36 Proportion of births attended by skilled

health professional

2011 31.7% NIPORT

37 Smoking prevalence among 15+ Women 2009 1.50% The global adult

Men 44.70% tobacco survey

38 Proportion of adults obese (women age 10-

49 and BMI>=18.5)

Women 2011 30% FSNF-2011,BU

39 Population age 15 and up living with

HIV/AIDS

Women 2009 1900 Bangladesh-UNAIDS

Men 4300

40 Reported number of all males and females

receiving anti-retroviral drug

Women 2010 163 Global summary of

Men 302 HIV/AIDS,WHO

41 Life expectancy at age 60 Women 2010 18 years SVRS,BBS

Men 16.9years

42 Proportion of Adult (aged 15+) mortality by main causes

Heart disease Women 2010 15.8% SVRS,BBS

Men 22%

Respiratory diseases Women 2010 8.6% SVRS,BBS

Men 11.7%

Cancer Women 2010 6.4% SVRS,BBS

Men 5.6%

IV. Public life and decision-making

43 Women's share of government ministerial

positions

2011 13% out of

46 minister

Cabinet Division,

Information

44 Proportion of seats held by women in

national parliament

2011 20% out of

345 seat

Bangladesh

Parliament

Secretariat

45 Women's share of managerial positions 2010 19% out of

513914

LFS,BBS

46 Percentage women among police officers

(Class-1)

2010 8.1% out of

2084

Statistics of civil

officer and staff, 2010

47 Percentage women among judges(Dist.&

Session Judges)

2010 15% out of

623

Statistics of civil

officer and staff, 2010

xxvi

Sl.No Indicator Gender Year Findings Source

V. Human rights of women and girl children

48 Proportion of women aged 15-49 subjected

to physical or sexual violence in the last 12

months by an intimate partner

- - -

49 Proportion of women aged 15-49 subjected

to physical or sexual violence in the last 12

months by persons other than an intimate

partner

- - -

50 * Prevalence of FGM/C (for relevant

countries only)

-- --

-

51 Percentage of women 20-24 years old who

were currently married before age 18

2011 0.5% VAW Survey-2011,

BBS

52 Adolescent fertility rate (15-19) per 1000

women

2010 59% SVRS,BBS

It should be noted that the original recommendation of UNSC has been slightly modified in a few cases (eg. serial

no. 2) to match context and availability of data.

1

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

1.1 Background

Gender equality implies a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes,

rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Equality between men and women exists when both sexes are

able to share equally in the distribution of power and influence; have equal opportunities for financial

independence through work or through setting up businesses; enjoy equal access to education and the

opportunity to develop personal ambitions. A critical aspect of promoting gender equality is the

empowerment of women, with a focus on identifying and redressing power imbalances and giving

women more autonomy to manage their own lives. Women’s empowerment is vital to sustainable

development and the realization of human rights for all. Empowering women is also an indispensable

tool for advancing development and reducing poverty. Gender equality is, first and foremost, a human

right. Women are entitled to live in dignity and in freedom from want and from fear. But equity means

fair and impartial justice, both are equally important irrespective of gender; women and men in sharing

property, ownership in all spheres of life.

It may be mentioned that for participation in all national activities, women should have equal rights and

privileges in the society.

The Constitution of Bangladesh has given such opportunity. According to Article 28 of the Constitution

of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh “ i) The state shall not discriminate any citizen on grounds only

of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth ii) Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of

state and of public life. iii) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, or place of birth be

subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regards to access to any place of public

entertainment or resort or admission to any educational institutions. iv) Nothing of this article shall

prevent the state from making special provision in favour of women or children or for the advancement

of any background section of citizen.’’

The Constitution of the country also ensured equal opportunity for women in empowerment under Article

29. This article envisaged as follows:

Equality of opportunity in public employment.

(i) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizen in respect of employment or office in the

service of the Republic.

(ii) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, gender or place of birth, be

ineligible for, or discrimination against in respect of, any employment or office in the service

of the Republic.

Over the years, government, NGOs, development partners are working towards women’s development

and implementing a series of development intervention for eliminating gender discrimination. As a

pragmatic measure for women’s empowerment, direct election of women members in Union Parishad

was introduced in 1997, where 3 seats out of 12 seats of Union Parishad members were kept for women

to be elected directly by the voters. In order to protect women for repression a law entitled “Prevention of

Women and Children Repression Act 2000”, revised in 2003 has been enforced to address Violence

Against Women (VAW). Moreover, the Dhaka, Declaration for Eliminating Violence Against Women in

South Asia 2003 reaffirms the instruments already evaluated by the national and international agencies.

The declaration stated as follows:

2

“We recognize and accept our crucial role, both individually and collectively, as the bridge between

people and government as advocates for the rights and concerns of the people, as legislators to make laws

to protect these rights and mobilize the policies and resources required to create the enabling

environment for this purpose”. The following laws, conventions and action plans ensure the right and

privileges of women in the society:

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

• The International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

• The International Convention on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights (1966)

• The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against

Women (1779) (CEDAW)

• The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1993)

• The Declaration on Violence Against Women (1993)

• The Vienna Declaration and the Program of Action of the World Conference on Human Rights

(1993)

• The Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD),

Cairo, Egypt (1994)

• Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration (1995)

• The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998)

• South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Preventing and

Combating the Trafficking in Women, (2002)

The Government of Bangladesh has already ratified CEDAW and perusing programs and policies to

implement the decisions of the Beijing Platform of Action. Government has also shown respect to other

laws and declaration. A National Plan of Action (NPA) for the women development has also been

formulated.

As regards educational attainment of women, commendable progress has been achieved in the recent

years and the women’s enrolment has exceeded the men’s enrolment. The enrolment in the tertiary level

has also been increased.

The employment situation of the women has also improved where large number of women is now

working in RMG sector, cosmetic and shoe industries. Women’s economic participation rate has also

been increased from 29.2% in 2005-06 to 36.0% in 2010. The share of women employment in nonagricultural

sector also increased over the years. As regards human development indicators particularly in

health and education, the gender gaps are becoming narrower in the recent year.

Women’s Advancement and Rights

Women frequently experience poverty differently, have different poverty reduction priorities and are

affected differently by development interventions. In addressing gender based discrimination the Sixth

Five Year Plan (SFYP) will follow a two-pronged approach. Firstly, gender will be integrated into all

sector interventions. Secondly, attention will be given to remove all policy and social biases against

women with a view to ensuring gender equality as enshrined in the National Constitution.

3

Vision and Goals: The vision for women’s advancement and rights is to create a society where men and

women will have equal opportunities and will enjoy all fundamental rights on an equal basis, To achieve

this vision; the mission is to ensure women’s advancement and rights in activities of all sectors of the

economy.

The Government adopted the ‘National Policy for Women’s Advancement` (NPWA) 2011 that aims at

eliminating discrimination inequality between women and men by empowering them to become equal

partners of development. The overall development goal for women’s empowerment covers:

(i) promoting and protecting women’s right;

(ii) eradicating the persistent burden of poverty on women;

(iii) eliminating discrimination against women;

(iv) enhancing women’s participation in the mainstream of economic activities;

(v) creating opportunities for education and marketable skills training to enable them to participate

and be competitive in all economic activities;

(vi) Incorporating women’s needs and concerns in all sector plans and programs;

(vii) promoting an enabling environment at the work-place: setting up day care centers for the

children of working mothers, career women hostels, safe accommodation for working women;

(viii) providing safe custody for women and children victims of trafficking and desertion, and creating

an enabling environment for their integration in the mainstream of society;

(ix) ensuring women’s empowerment in the field of politics and decision making;

(x) taking action to acknowledge women’s contribution in social and economic spheres;

(xi) ensuring women’s social security against all vulnerability and risks in the state, society and

family;

(xii) eliminating all forms of violation and exploitation against women;

(xiii) developing women’s capacity through health and nutrition care;

(xiv) facilitating women’s participation in all national and international bodies;

(xv) strengthening the existing institutional capacity for coordination and monitoring of women’s

advancement;

(xvi) talking action through advocacy and campaigns to depict positive images of women;

(xvii) talking special measures for skills development of women workers engaged in the export –

oriented sectors;

(xviii) incorporating gender equality concerns in all trade –related negotiations and activities;

(xix) ensuring gender sensitive growth with regional balance; and

(xx) protecting women from the adverse effects of environmental degradation and climate change.

The Sixth Five Year Plan (SFYP) Strategy to Address Gender Issues

The main strategy and policy initiatives under the SFYP to improve the economical political and social

inclusion and empowerment of women include:

• Policy and Legal Framework: Taking the constitution as the basis, the government’s commitment to

various international forums (CEDAW, Beijing Platform for Action etc.) would be taken into

consideration in addressing women’s advancement and rights issues.

• Productive Employment: To create more jobs, action would be taken to improve women’s

employment opportunities and wages outside the household and also ensure equal pay for equal work. An

enabling environment would be created in the workplace by establishing day care centre. Provision

4

would be made for life and disability insurance for workers, especially women workers. Steps would be

taken to ensure secure jobs and decent working conditions for women in the formal and informal sectors.

• Enabling Environment: Measures would be taken to develop advocacy for treating girl child and boy

child equally and promote equal sharing of household and productive work. Necessary legal and

administrative measures would be taken for ensuring a safe workplace, transportation facilities, and

infrastructure like separate toilets, lunchrooms and lunchtime;

• Eliminating Female Health and Education Disparities: The sixth plan will continue with past efforts

in removing all disparities in health and education indicators. Related sector targets and programs will

build this objective as a major plan focus.

• Priority to Women in Social Protection Programs: The existing programs for social protection for

disadvantaged women would be continued. Gender sensitive measures would be taken to protect women

from economic vulnerability and risk due to natural disasters. The effect of the emerging problems of

climate change on women would be assessed for designing coping strategies and mitigation measures.

Banks and micro-credit providers would be encouraged to extend small and micro-credit to the poor and

the vulnerable.

• Political Empowerment and Participation: In this context, the main targets are to ensure

participation of women in the National Parliament and the local political institutions, influence political

decisions in favor of women, ensure direct election in the reserved seats in the National Parliament and

ensure women’s representation in the local bodies with authority and responsibility. Initiatives would be

taken to make women politically more conscious, encourage women to participate on politics and to

build leadership among women at all levels.

• Addressing Violence Against Women (VAW): The major targets for elimination of VAW are to

ensure reporting of all VAW incidences, reduce reported VAW at least by half, and consolidate the

“One-Stop Crisis Centre” in medical college hospitals at divisional levels. It will provide medical

treatment, legal and psychosocial counseling to women and children victims of violence, and provide

shelter facilities and make efforts for their reintegration and rehabilitation in society. The police, the

administration and the judiciary will be sensitized to apply CEDAW with provisions in cases of VAW

and women’s rights.

• Gender Mainstreaming: Laws, rules and regulations, institutional mechanisms, policies, projects and

programs which are not gender sensitive would be reformed. The intuitional mechanism for coordination

in monitoring of gender equality issues would be strengthened.

• Institutional Strengthening: The National Council for Women’s Development (NCWD) would

oversee women’s advancement-related activities by providing guidance and policy support. The

Women’s Development Implementation and Evaluation Committee (MOWCA) will regularly review,

evaluate and co-ordinate women’s development activities and assist NCWD by reporting on progress of

implementation. The Women in Development (WID) focal point mechanism would be strengthened to

play an effective role in leading the coordination, monitoring the implementation of women’s

advancement and rights in policies, projects and programs.

• Integrating Gender Issues in Planning and Budgetary Processes: For integration, capacity building

of relevant government officials on gender responsive budgeting and planning will be adopted in line

with the policy agenda.

5

• Strengthening Women’s Participation in Economic Decision-making: Measures would be taken for

ensuring participation of women producers, women trade unions and women entrepreneurs in trade

negotiations and in various committees of the Ministry of Commerce, ensuring coherence between the

dominant international economic agenda and the international legal obligations.

Making arrangements for market access to goods where women are ‘behind the label” planning for

market access to women in the secret services under Mode 4, encouraging FDI in women labor intensive

industries, and ensuring women’s voice in international forums.

• Addressing Ethnic Dimension of Women: Special program for ethnic women including poor,

destitute and elderly will be undertaken to address their needs. In order to increase productivity and

diversification of activities, the ethnic women’s capacity would be enhanced through health, education

and services.

• Promoting Public Image of Women: The media will be sensitized to promote positive images of

women. In order to make the media more gender friendly, effort will be taken to establish increased

linkages between women’s groups and the broadcasting agencies.

• Disability and Gender Issues: Women with disabilities will be given preference under the safety net

measures.

It may be mentioned that United Nations (UN) has declared the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)

in September 2000 with the objectives of achieving some targeted goals within 2015. The MDG has 8

goals 20 targets and 60 indicators.

The MDG Goals are as follows:

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

The MDG goal no. 3 entitled “Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment Women” is devoted to

women’s development.

The target no. 4 of the MDG is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education

preferably by 2005 and at all levels by 2015.

6

1.2 Objectives

The main objectives of the Gender Statistics of Bangladesh 2012 are as follows:

• To provide gender disaggregated data for the planners, administrators, policy makers,

researchers and development partners.

• To oversee the progress of women in different sectors

• To provide evidence base statistics for research and policy development

• To asses differences in the situations of women and men and how their conditions are

changing

• To provide women development or empowerment related statistics for the development

of policies that are not explicitly related to gender.

The United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) also suggested producing gender statistics

annually to evaluate the outcome of the member states.

1.3 Methodology

The report on “Gender Statistics of Bangladesh 2012” has been prepared by taking secondary

data from different censuses, periodic surveys, ad-hoc surveys, and administrative records of

other ministries/division, department/directorates, NGO, autonomous bodies, corporations. To

compile the data we first emphasized on census data then survey and administrative records.

Where multiple sources of data are present, preference has been given to the most reliable

source.

1.4 Limitation

In a few cases, we cannot update data due to unavailability. Even where gender gap data is

available, it does not necessarily always portray the full extent of the disparity as behind the

scene women have many other responsibilities and duties, data of which is not available or is

difficult to quantify.

We cannot maintain appropriate year interval due to unavailability of data. In some cases, there

have been instances of significant variation between various sources of the same data. However,

due to lack of sufficient explanations in the source report, some of the variation could not be

explained.

Limitations of different surveys

Labour force survey 2010:

• Labour force data by occupation at 3-digit level may not be statistically

representative because of small sample size

Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010:

• With regard to earnings, it is difficult to determine the value of service rendered

by the unpaid family members, particularly those services rendered by the unpaid

female and the children. Such household members were not normally considered,

as earners by the respondent and therefore, their income were likely to have been

under reported.

7

• Only two weights were used in HES 1991-92, one for urban one for rural. On the

other hand HIES 2000 used 14 weights and HIES-2005 and 2010 used 16 weight.

This may not be quite compatible for comparability of past surveys.

Child Nutrition Survey 2000:

• When sampling frame is being designed, the sample size should take into account

that there will be analyses on the determination of malnutrition with this sample.

• The urban population in Bangladesh now comprises approximately 25% of the

total. Of these, it is estimated that 30% live in slums. If this is the case, then there

needs to be more representative sampling of urban slums.

• Almost all national and international surveys of childhood nutrition now cover

the age range 0-60 months. But the Child Nutrition Survey of Bangladesh

continues to survey up to 71 months. This survey needs to include infants below

six months to be able to compare results with other studies.

Child Nutrition Survey 2012:

• Lack of skilled manpower in anthropometric measurement

• Lack of available female enumerator

Sample Vital Registration System 2012:

• Frequent changes of household in urban PSU

• Urban / Rural classification may not always be done perfectly as urbanization is a

gradual process. Reclassification of previous rural areas as urban may sometimes

create misleading movements in time-series stats.

• Shortage of work force in the headquarter and regional offices has hampered

adequate coverage of vital events using Dual Recording System.

1.5 Organization of the report

This report contains 12 chapters where the introductory chapter provides background, objectives,

methodology and limitation of the report. The second chapter gives the necessary information related to

household and population of Bangladesh disaggregated by sex. The third chapter provides information on

nuptiality such as early marriage, spousal age difference, mean age at marriage, marital status and

contraceptive use. Chapter 4 provides major findings of health and nutrition where chapter 5 provides

morbidity status and health services. Chapter 6 deals with disability data, chapter 7 focuses particularly

on labour force participation of women compared to men in the economy. Chapter 8 contains several sexdisaggregated

data on education, chapter 9 includes income, expenditure of household and poverty

related data disaggregated by sex. Empowerment of women in different public and private enterprises are

provided in chapter 10. Chapter 11 provides data on violence against women. Chapter 12 is the final

chapter, which presents some selected MDG indicators disaggregated by sex. This chapter also includes

some selected indicators among the SAARC countries.

8

9

CHAPTER 2

Household and Population

This chapter provides the necessary information related to household and population of Bangladesh

disaggregated by sex. Specifically time series and comparable data on household size, head of the

household by sex, size of land owned, earning status, population size, sex ratio and migration rate etc. has

been presented in this chapter.

2.01 Population Size

In Bangladesh, the population size has been increasing continuously although the annual growth rates of

population declining. The size of the population doubled between the year 1974 and 2011. The sex ratio

(m/f X 100) which reflects the difference in number between women and men have improved

significantly towards equality, and was 100 in 2011 population census.

Table 02.01: Census adjusted population (million) distribution by sex 19742011

Year Number in million Proportion Annual

Women Men Both Women Men Growth rate

1974 37.0 39.4 76.4 48.4 51.6 2.48

1981 43.6 46.3 89.9 48.5 51.5 2.32

1991 54.1 57.3 111.4 48.6 51.4 2.17

2001 62.8 67.7 130.5 48.1 51.9 1.59

2011 74.8 75.0 149.8 49.9 50.1 1.37

Source: Report on Population Census 1974, 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011, BBS

2.02 Population Structure by Broad Age Group

Table 02.02: Percentage distribution of women and men by broad age groups, 1981 2011

Age group 1981 1991 2001 2011

Women

<15 46.8 45.0 38.6 33.8

15-49 43.4 45.7 51.0 53.4

50+ 9.8 9.3 10.4 12.8

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Men

<15 46.5 45.3 39.7 35.5

15-49 42.1 43.8 48.1 49.8

50+ 11.4 10.9 12.2 14.7

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Population Census, 2001 and 2011,BBS

The distribution of the population by broad age and sex is shown in table 2.02. It may be noted

that most of the women-men population on the country is concentrated in the “15-49” age group.

It is evident from the table 2.02 that women population of the age-group <15 has decreased from

46.8 in census 1981 to 33.8 in 2011. For men population in the same age group decreased from

46.5 in census 1981 to 35.5 in 2011.

10

On the other hand, percentage of children less than 15 years and population over 60 years, which

constitutes the dependent population, gradually decreased over the decades since 1981. The

decreasing trend of dependent population is a good sign for the nation and favours the economy

with reducing cost burden of the society.

2.03 Population Distribution by Age Group and Sex

The distribution of population by age group and sex is shown in table 2.03 for 1981-2011. It is

apparent from the table that population at the age-group 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 are almost same for

women and men at national, rural and urban levels. Difference in the distribution of population

by sex is noticed in other age groups.

Table 02.03: Percentage distribution of population by age group, sex and residence, 19812011

Age group Women Men

1981 1991 2001 2011 1981 1991 2001 2011

National

00-04 17.4 14.9 12.7 10.3 16.6 14.4 13.2 10.6

00-09 16.5 17.0 13.2 12.3 15.9 16.8 13.7 12.9

10-14 12.8 12.9 12.4 11.2 13.4 14.1 13.0 11.9

15-19 9.7 8.2 9.6 8.8 5.9 9.0 9.9 9.0

20-24 8.3 8.6 10.4 10.6 7.4 7.4 7.7 8.0

25-29 7.3 8.9 9.9 10.1 6.8 6.9 7.8 8.6

30-34 5.9 6.3 7.1 7.5 5.9 6.2 6.8 7.0

35-39 4.9 5.8 6.0 6.6 5.2 6.1 6.6 6.5

40-44 4.0 4.2 4.6 5.5 4.3 4.7 5.4 5.9

45-49 3.3 3.5 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.7

50-54 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.6 2.9 3.1 3.4 4.1

55-59 2.2 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.7

60-64 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.9

65-69 0.9 1.0 3.7 1.3 1.2 1.1 4.18 1.5

70-74 2.1 0.8 - 1.4 2.6 1.1 - 1.7

75-79 - 0.3 - 0.5 - 0.5 - 0.7

80+ - 0.5 - 1.14 - 0.7 - 1.1

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Pop(Million) 43.6 54.1 62.8 74.8 46.3 57.3 67.7 75.0

11

(Contd.)

Age group Women Men

1981 1991 2001 2011 1981 1991 2001 2011

Rural

00-04 17.7 15.2 13.2 10.6 17.4 14.6 14.1 11.2

05-09 16.7 17.3 13.7 12.8 16.6 17.0 14.7 13.8

10-14 12.6 12.7 12.3 11.3 14.1 14.1 13.3 12.4

15-19 9.5 8.0 9.1 8.4 9.1 9.0 9.6 8.8

20-24 8.1 8.4 9.9 9.9 6.6 7.3 6.9 7.3

25-29 7.4 8.8 6.0 9.8 6.8 7.0 7.2 8.0

30-34 5.8 6.6 6.9 7.4 5.2 6.1 6.3 6.6

35-39 4.9 5.8 6.0 6.7 5.0 5.9 6.3 6.2

40-44 4.2 4.2 4.7 5.3 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.8

45-49 3.0 3.5 3.5 4.2 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.6

50-54 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1 3.1 3.4 4.1

55-59 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.7

60-64 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.5 3.0

65-69 3.1 1.0 3.9 1.4 3.9 1.1 4.5 1.7

70-74 - - - 1.5 - 1.2 - 1.8

75-79 - - - 0.6 - 0.5 - 0.8

80+ - - - 1.2 - 0.7 - 1.2

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Pop(Million) 37.4 43.9 48.6 57.9 38.4 45.1 50.9 56.8

Urban

00-04 16.1 12.7 10.9 9.2 12.9 12.2 10.4 8.8

05-09 15.2 15.0 11.3 10.7 12.5 14.7 10.6 10.3

10-14 14.4 14.2 12.9 10.9 12.8 14.2 12.0 10.7

15-19 10.7 10.2 11.4 10.5 10.2 9.6 10.9 9.9

20-24 9.5 10.4 12.3 12.2 10.2 8.7 10.4 10.3

25-29 8.1 9.8 10.9 11.2 9.8 7.6 9.9 10.5

30-34 5.7 9.1 7.7 8.1 7.1 7.1 8.2 8.3

35-39 4.5 5.9 6.2 7.1 6.2 7.0 7.3 7.4

40-44 3.8 4.1 4.5 5.6 4.9 5.4 5.9 6.4

45-49 2.7 3.1 3.2 4.1 3.5 4.1 4.3 4.9

50-54 3.0 2.4 2.6 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.3 4.0

55-59 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.6

60-64 2.0 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.4

65-69 2.8 0.7 2.9 1.1 3.0 1.0 3.1 1.2

70-74 - 0.6 - 1.1 - 0.9 - 1.2

75-79 - 0.3 - 0.4 - 0.3 - 0.5

80+ - 0.4 - 0.8 - 0.5 - 0.7

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Pop(Million) 6.2 10.2 14.2 16.9 7.9 12.2 16.8 18.2

Source: Population Census, BBS

12

Population pyramid by 2011

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

0-4

5-9

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80+

Men Women

2.04 Sex Ratio

Table 2.04 shows the trend in sex ratio in different censuses by residence, rural and urban. The sex ratio

of the population at the national level has decreased from 106.1 in 1991 to 100.0 in 2011. The decline is

evident in both urban and rural areas. However, in urban areas sex ratio is much higher (126.3 in 1981 to

110.0 in 2011), because higher rates of male migration compared to female migration.

Table 02.04: Sex ratio by residence, 19812011

Residence 1981 1991 2001 2011

National 106.2 106.1 106.6 100.0

Rural 102.8 103.4 103.6 98.0

Urban 126.3 118.1 117.2 110.0

Source: Population Census National Report, 2001 and 2011

2.05 Household Head by Sex

Household head termed as head of a household or a family whose authority is to exercise control and

management over household or a family and support the dependent members founded on a moral or legal

obligation or duty. Table 2.05 shows that 84.4% of the households at the national level were headed by

men in 2011 whereas only 15.6% were headed by women.

Table 02.05: Percentage distribution of households by sex of household heads and

residence, 19812011

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1981 16.8 83.2 17.9 82.9 14.9 85.1

1991 11.0 89.0 11.4 88.6 8.4 91.6

2001 7.9 92.1 7.6 92.4 9.0 91.0

2011 15.6 84.4 16.0 84.0 14.0 86.0

Source: Population Census , BBS

There are fluctuations in proportion of households headed by men and women, but overall male

dominance prevails over time and is similar in urban and rural areas. On an average men headed

households was about five times more than women headed households.

2.06 Household Size by Sex of Household Head

Average size of men and women headed households for 2000, 2005 and 2010 is presented in table 2.06.

It is observed from the table that average household size of men and women headed household declined

gradually from 2000 to 2010.

Table 02.06: Trend in average household size by sex of household heads and residence,

20002010

Residence 2000 2005 2010

Both Women Men Both Women Men Both Women Men

National 5.18 3.65 5.33 4.85 3.48 4.98 4.50 3.39 4.67

Rural 5.19 3.54 5.35 4.89 3.41 5.07 4.53 3.35 4.73

Urban 5.13 5.24 4.04 4.72 3.59 4.84 4.41 3.53 4.52

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey, BBS

Men headed households are larger than women headed households in both urban and rural areas for the

year 2000 to 2010. The decrease in the average household size of both women and men headed may be

attributed to the reduction in fertility rate and the conversion of large family into nuclear size.

2.07 Average Family Members by Sex and Land Ownership

Table 2.07 presents distribution of average number of male and female family members by land holding

size. There is not much difference observed by land ownership and sex, except an overall decline in

number of male and female family members over time.

14

Table 02.07: Distribution of households by size of land owned and average number of

members by sex, 20052010

Size of land owned (acre) Average number of members

Women Men Women Men

2005 2010

Landless 2.03 2.03 2.03 1.93

00.01-00.04 2.13 2.07 2.11 2.02

00.05-00.49 2.43 2.44 2.30 2.26

00.50-00.99 2.43 2.54 2.31 2.35

01.00-01.49 2.51 2.64 2.39 2.27

01.50-02.49 2.53 2.74 2.49 2.43

02.50-04.99 2.78 2.96 2.54 2.67

05-00-07.49 2.94 3.44 2.66 2.95

07.50-09.99 3.04 3.68 2.60 2.89

10.00-14.99 3.79 3.56 2.79 2.43

15.00-24.99 3.35 4.16 3.24 2.89

25.00+ 3.79 3.32 4.05 3.18

All groups 2.42 2.47 2.27 2.23

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2010, BBS

The number of members increases with the increase in size of land. This was applicable for both men and

women.

2.08 Earning Status of Household Members

The distribution of household heads by sex and earning status of household members are shown in table

2.08. It is evident from the table that percent of earners among women household members increased

from 12.9 in 2005 to 15.0 in 2010, seen in both rural and urban areas.

Table 02.08: Percentage distribution of households by sex of head and percentage

distribution of earners by sex and residence, 2005 & 2010

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2010, BBS.

Residence

Percentage of household Percentage of earner within

Women headed Men headed Total Women Men

2005

National 10.27 89.73 100.0 12.9 72.3

Rural 10.72 89.28 100.0 10.1 72.8

Urban 8.96 91.04 100.0 19.8 70.7

2010

National 13.90 86.10 100.0 15.0 72.4

Rural 14.90 85.10 100.0 12.6 73.0

Urban 11.20 88.80 100.0 20.3 70.7

15

Percentage of earner status by gender and

residence, 2010

11.66 9.64

16.66

88.34 90.36

83.34

0

20

40

60

80

100

National Rural Urban

Female Male

In 2010 there was urban-rural variation in respect of earning status of household members. For the

women members in the rural area, it was 12.6% compared to 20.3% in the urban area. It may be due to

urbanization and higher level of women education. On the other hand, percentage of men earners in the

rural area were higher than urban area.

2.09 Internal Migration

Migration has been defined as the movement of persons who change his/her place of residence, for a

period of six months or more except for marriage in which case the time period for the migration is not

fixed. Internal migration is the process of migration that takes place within the country. Migration is an

important component influencing growth and redistribution of population and resources. For the socioeconomic

development and planning process, the analysis of data on migration is essential. Migration

takes place in different ways. In case of permanent migration, the migrant leaves the place of birth once

for all and stay at the place of destination. On the other hand, repeated change of residence may take

place in case of temporary migration.

16

2.10 In and Out Migration Rate

In and out-migration rate per 1000 population for 1985-2010 is presented in table 2.10. It is evident from

table that in-migration rates estimated for both sexes, women and men were found 35.3, 41.4 and 26.1 in

2010 while for out-migration it was found 36.1, 41.8 and 30.3 respectively. It also observed that there

had been an increasing trend in out-migration rate.

Table 02.10: In and out migration rate per 1000 population by sex, 19852010

Year In-migration Out-migration

Both Women Men Both Women Men

1985 9.8 - - 8.0 - -

1990 16.2 - - 10.1 - -

1995 18.6 - - 13.4 - -

2000 22.2 - - 15.8 - -

2006 33.5 38.9 28.3 28.9 34.1 23.8

2008 30.6 34.2 25.5 28.6 29.3 23.3

2010 35.3 41.4 26.1 36.1 41.8 30.3

Source: SVRS, BBS

2.11 Direction of InMigration

Migration rate by sex and direction of migration for 2000-2010 is presented in table 2.11. It is evident

from the table that in-migration rates to rural areas is smaller than in-migration to urban areas for

understandable reasons, and the rate of in-migration to urban areas have increased at a much faster pace.

On the other hand, in rural areas in migration rate for women is higher than the in migration for men,

because of marriage exogamy as the next table shows. Urban in-migration rate of men is relatively

higher than that of women in 2000 but in 2010 urban in-migration rate of women was more than those of

women, which might be due to job opportunity increased for women in the garments industry.

Table 02.11: Inmigration rate by sex and direction per 1000 population, 20082010

Direction of in-migration per 1000 Both Women Men

2000

Rural to Rural 12.7 18.9 6.9

Urban to Rural 1.0 1.2 0.7

Total Rural In migration 13.7 20.1 7.6

Urban to Urban 33.1 32.8 33.3

Rural to Urban 11.7 11.8 11.5

Total Urban In migration 44.7 44.6 44.9

17

(Contd.)

Direction of in-migration per 1000 Both Women Men

2005

Rural to Rural 12.7 17.5 8.3

Urban to Rural 3.4 3.6 3.3

Total Rural In migration 16.3 21.1 11.6

Urban to Urban 43.5 44.8 42.2

Rural to Urban 20.3 23.0 17.7

Total Urban In migration 63.8 67.8 59.9

2010

Rural to Rural 16.2 22.3 10.2

Urban to Rural 6.0 6.4 5.5

Total Rural In migration 22.2 28.7 15.7

Urban to Urban 48.9 50.9 46.9

Rural to Urban 24.5 27.4 21.6

Total Urban In migration 73.4 78.4 68.5

Source: SVRS, 2008, 2009,2010, BBS

2.12 Reasons for InMigration and Gender:

Table 02.12: Percentage distribution of migrants classified by reasons and direction of

migration by sex for 20082010

Year Direction Sex Total Marriage Economic reason Others

1995 Total Rural

In-migration

Women 100 84.3 8.3 7.4

Men 100 6.4 19.4 73.2

Rural to Rural Women 100 84.3 8.3 7.4

Men 100 6.2 19.5 74.3

Urban to Rural Women 100 88.6 7.2 4.2

Men 100 11.5 14.4 74.1

Total Urban

In-migration

Women 100 54.5 8.7 36.8

Men 100 3.1 22.5 74.4

Urban to Urban Women 100 35.2 9.7 55.1

Men 100 2.0 20.3 77.7

Rural to Urban Women 100 64.2 8.3 27.5

Men 100 4.3 24.5 71.2

18

(Contd.)

Year Direction Sex Total Marriage Economic reason Others

2001 Total Rural

In-migration

Women 100 78.4 12.6 9.0

Men 100 5.2 26.5 68.3

Rural to Rural Women 100 68.3 13.9 17.8

Men 100 8.8 18.8 72.4

Urban to Rural Women 100 79.0 12.5 8.5

Men 100 4.8 27.3 67.9

Total Urban

In-migration

Women 100 32.0 15.2 49.0

Men 100 2.1 29.9 68.5

Urban to Urban Women 100 22.7 15.7 56.4

Men 100 1.7 30.0 68.3

Rural to Urban Women 100 57.0 14.1 28.9

Men 100 3.4 29.7 67.1

2005 Total Rural

In-migration

Women 100 31.6 12.3 56.1

Men 100 2.3 32.8 64.9

Rural to Rural Women 100 44.4 8.9 46.7

Men 100 2.9 22.7 74.4

Urban to Rural Women 100 15.8 16.4 67.8

Men 100 1.9 41.4 57.6

Total Urban

In-migration

Women 100 4.3 12.0 83.7

Men 100 0.6 24.4 75.0

Urban to Urban Women 100 3.3 11.8 84.9

Men 100 0.4 25.1 74.5

Rural to Urban Women 100 12.1 13.5 74.4

Men 100 2.0 19.2 78.8

Year Direction Sex Total Marriage

Education Looking

for job

Getting

job

Others

2010 Total Rural

In-migration

Women 100 38.1 1.6 4.8 1.1 54.4

Men 100 2.1 3.1 16.5 2.4 75.9

Rural to Rural Women 100 45.2 1.6 3.7 1.1 47.4

Men 100 2.7 3.4 12.4 2.2 72.5

Urban to Rural Women 100 13.5 1.7 4.8 1.3 78.8

Men 100 0.9 2.7 11.7 2.8 82.0

Total Urban

In-migration

Women 100 9.8 5.6 8.5 2.5 73.6

Men 100 1.1 6.4 21.1 4.6 66.9

Urban to Urban Women 100 4.9 4.5 7.4 1.9 81.3

Men 100 0.5 4.8 18.5 3.3 72.9

Rural to Urban Women 100 18.8 7.7 10.4 3.8 59.3

Men 100 2.4 9.8 26.7 7.4 53.7

Source: SVRS, BBS

19

CHAPTER 3

Marriage, Fertility and Contraceptive Use

Marriage is defined as the legal union of two persons of opposite sex that is women and men for leading

conjugal life, formation of family and population growth. At present, early marriage is gradually

changing as an impact of enactment of laws uplifting of women education, participation of women in

socio-economic activities and the technological innovation changes in the society.

Fertility refers to the role of birth in population changes and human reproduction. Fertility induces

productivity during the reproductive period of women.

Contraceptives are methods of birth control, used to prevent a woman from getting pregnant. There are

many different forms of contraceptives some used by women and some used by men. The effectiveness

of contraceptives varies dependently on type and proper use. Contraceptives such as birth control pill and

condoms are widely used to prevent pregnancies.

This chapter provides some important indicators on nuptiality such as early marriage, spousal age

difference, mean age at marriage of women and men, marital status of women and men, fertility, divorce

rate and contraceptive use.

3.01 Mean Age at Marriage

Mean Age at Marriage (MAM) is one of the most important indicators of nuptiality. Mean age at

marriage has direct impact on fertility and duration of marriage. Table 3.01 shows the levels and trends

of mean age at marriage by residence for the period 1985-2010.

Table 03.01: Mean age at marriage of women and men by residence, 19852010

Year Women Men

National Rural Urban National Rural Urban

1985 18.0 17.8 19.8 25.3 25.2 26.7

1990 18.0 17.8 18.8 25.1 24.7 26.3

1995 19.9 19.6 20.6 27.5 27.0 28.6

2000 20.4 20.1 21.2 27.7 27.1 28.9

2005 17.9 17.8 18.8 23.3 22.9 24.8

2010 18.7 18.4 19.4 23.9 23.5 25.4

Source: Report on Sample Vital Registration System 2010, BBS

Table 03.02: Median age and singulate mean age at marriage, 2010

Type of marriage age estimate Women Men

Median age at marriage 18.0 23.0

Singulate mean age at marriage 20.2 26.1

Source: Report on Sample Vital Registration System 2010, BBS

It is observed from the table that mean age at marriage for men in 2010 was higher than that of women

by 5.2 years at the national level. MAM of urban men was higher than that of rural men by about 2

years. Mean age at marriage of urban women was also higher than that of rural women by only 1 year in

2010. Irregular trend is observed in mean age at marriage over time for both women and men at all

levels.

20

3.02 Early Marriage

Bangladesh law prohibits marriage before age 18 for girls and age 21 for boys. But marriage

before the age of 18 years happens really for many girls. According to UNICEF’s global

estimates, more than 60 million women aged 20-24 were married before their 18th birthday.

Table 03.02.1: Percentage of women aged 1549 in marriage before their 15th birthday,

women aged 2049 in marriage before their 18th birthday and women aged 15

19 currently married, by division and area, 2006.

Division/Area No. of

women

aged 15-49

years

Percentage

married

before age

15

No. of

women

aged 20-

49 years

Percentage

married

before age

18

No. of

women

aged 15-19

years

Percentage

of women

15-19

years

married

Division

Barisal 4172 36.7 3305 79.5 867 46.9

Chittagong 13372 21.9 10141 66.5 3231 30.8

Dhaka 22404 32.9 17652 72.1 4752 40.9

Khulna 8124 39.3 6501 80.5 1623 47.0

Rajshahi 17394 41.8 13665 81.4 3729 53.9

Sylhet 4393 19.1 3311 57.6 1083 25.6

Area

Rural 47449 36.2 37030 78.4 10419 46.1

Urban 21807 27.0 17062 65.2 4745 33.0

Urban

municipality

15267 28.3 11962 68.2 3305 34.0

City Corporation 6540 23.7 5100 58.1 1440 30.7

Non-slum 6067 22.5 4724 56.5 1343 29.5

Slum 473 39.8 376 78.6 97 46.8

Total 604 13.2 484 43.8 120 26.7

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of BBS looks at two indicators to estimate early marriage:

the percentage of women married before 15 and 18 years age. Table 3.02.1, shows a large proportion of

girls have married at an early age. Early marriage is common in Bangladesh.

There are wide variations between divisions. Rajshahi has the highest rate of marriage before turned 18

(81.4 percent) compared to the rate observed in Sylhet division (57.6 %). Khulna has the rate (80.5 %)

which is very close to the rate of Rajshahi division.

By residence, 78.4 percent of women aged 20-49 living in rural areas were married before they turned 18

years compared to 65.2 percent in urban areas.

21

Table 03.02.2: Percentage distribution of ever married women (1549 yrs) who married

before their 15th and 18th years of ages

Age group No. of

women aged

15-49 years

Percentage

married

before age

15

No. of women

aged 20-49 years

Percentage

married

before age

18

No. of

women aged

15-19 years

Percentage

of women

15-19 years

married

15-19 years 15284 16.5 15284 41.9

20-24 years 12630 27.7 12630 70.2

25-29 years 11151 33.1 11151 76.1

30-34 years 9376 37.5 9376 77.7

35-39 years 8853 40.0 8853 80.5

40-44 years 6627 45.4 6627 85.7

45-49 years 5939 56.6 5939 64.1

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

Table 03.02.3: Percentage of women aged 1549 in marriage before their 15th birthday,

women aged 2049 in marriage before their 18th birthday and women aged 15

19 currently married, by educational status, 2006.

Educational status No. of

women aged

15-49 years

Percentage

married

before age 15

No. of

women aged

20-49 years

Percentage

married

before

age 18

No. of

women

aged 15-19

years

Percentage

of women

15-19 years

married

None 23812 50.2 22393 85.8 1419 60.9

Primary

incomplete

9669 43.3 7898 84.3 1772 52.6

Primary complete 8286 35.5 6288 79.1 1997 54.1

Secondary

incomplete

18917 18.5 10896 67.1 8021 38.8

Secondary

completed or

higher

8923 5.1 6900 29.5 2023 19.3

Non-standard

curriculum

247 43.7 197 87.2 50 35.0

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

Table 3.02.3 shows that there is a negative relationship between percent married before age 15 and age

18 and education, i.e. the lower the education of the women the younger woman at marriage. Table

3.02.4 shows that early age at marriage is associated negatively with household wealth.

22

Table 03.02.4: Percentage of women aged 1549 in marriage before their 15th birthday,

women aged 2049 in marriage before their 18th birthday and women aged 15

19 currently married, by wealth index, 2006.

Wealth

index

No. of

women aged

15-49 years

Percentage

married

before age 15

No. of women

aged

20-49 years

Percentage

married

before age 18

No. of

women aged

15-19 years

No. of

women

aged

15-19 years

Wealth index

Poorest 12818 44.7 10592 85.0 2226 52.0

Second 13359 39.8 10377 82.0 2982 49.8

Middle 13821 35.3 10495 78.3 3326 45.1

Fourth 14241 28.8 10858 71.5 3383 39.0

Richest 15622 19.9 12254 56.1 3367 27.9

National 69860 33.1 54576 74.0 15284 41.8

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

3.03 Women Aged 2024 Married before Age 18

The table 3.03 shows proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married before 18 years age. The

figures indicate that the probability of early marriage have declined over the years, with proportions of

women married before age 18 declining from 64.1 % in 2006 to 51.1 % in 2011 at national level. The

declining trend was seen in both rural and urban areas.

Table 03.03: Proportion of women 2024 years old who were married before age 18 for the

year 2006 and 2011

Residence Women

2006 2011

National 64.1 51.1

Rural 67.4 51.6

Urban 56.2 50.6

Source :Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey-2006 and VAW survey 2011, BBS

3.04 Spousal Age Difference

The other MICS component is the spousal age difference, with the indicator being the

percentage of women currently married to a man at least ten years older. The table 3.04.1 shows

that of the women aged 15-19 who are currently married the majority (43-53%) have husbands

who were 5-9 years older, the second highest proportion (26-43%) have husbands over 10 years

older, while 17-21% have husbands 0-4 years older, with variations by division.

23

Table 03.04.1: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 1519 according to

the age difference with their husbands by division, 2006

Division Percentage of currently married women aged 15-19 whose

husband is:

No. of

women aged

Younger 0-4 years 15-19 years

older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s

age unknown

Barisal 0.5 15.1 49.5 32.3 2.5 407

Chittagong 0.0 13.6 44.1 40.6 1.7 997

Dhaka 0.0 18.2 48.9 31.6 1.4 1946

Khulna 0.1 14.4 53.4 31.8 0.3 762

Rajshahi 0.1 20.6 52.7 26.1 0.4 2001

Sylhet 0.0 14.2 42.6 42.3 0.9 277

Table 03.04.2: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 1519 according to

the age difference with their husbands by area, 2006

Area Percentage of currently married women aged 15-19 whose husband is: No. of women

aged 15-19

years

Younger 0-4 years

older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s age

unknown

Area

Rural 0.1 17.2 50.9 30.9 1.0 4802

Urban 0.1 18.0 46.1 34.7 1.2 1565

Urban municipality 0.1 17.8 46.8 33.9 1.4 1124

City corporation 0.0 18.5 44.2 36.6 0.7 441

Non-slum 0.0 18.0 43.5 38.0 0.6 396

Slum 0.0 22.8 50.8 25.0 1.3 45

Tribal 0.7 20.5 42.3 35.7 0.7 32

Table 03.04.3: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 1519 according to

age difference with their husbands by area, 2006

Women’s and girl’s

education

Percentage of currently married women aged 15-19 whose husband is: No. of women

aged

15-19 years

Younger 0-4 years

older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s age

unknown

None 0.0 16.9 48.2 33.9 1.0 564

Primary

incomplete

0.0 19.6 51.1 26.3 0.9 932

Primary complete 0.1 22.1 49.4 27.3 1.1 1081

Secondary

incomplete

0.1 15.9 51.0 32.0 0.9 3116

Secondary

completed or

higher

0.0 10.8 39.4 47.5 2.2 390

Non-standard

curriculum

- - - - - 17

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

Table 3.04.2 shows that there is not much variation in spousal age difference by area of residence. Table

3.04.3 shows that the spousal age gap was larger among women with more education.

24

Tables 3.04.4, 3.04.5 and 3.04.6 show variations in spousal age difference according to division, area of

residence and women's education level. Women in Sylhet compared to women in other divisions are

more likely to have husbands 10 years older, while women living in slums are less likely to have

husband 10 years older compared to women living in rural or other types of urban areas. Women with

secondary or higher completed education are more likely to have husbands older by 10 years or more.

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 2024 according to

age difference with their husbands by division, Bangladesh, 2006

Division Percentage of currently married women aged 20-24 whose

husband is:

No of

women aged

Younger 0-4 years 20-24 years

Older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s age

unknown

Barisal 0.2 13.3 46.1 39.3 1.1 635

Chittagong 0.1 16.9 44.5 37.8 0.7 1894

Dhaka 0.1 16.0 48.1 35.1 0.7 3296

Khulna 0.2 16.4 47.6 35.8 0.0 1260

Rajshahi 0.1 18.4 48.2 33.1 0.2 2801

Sylhet 0.0 14.4 37.0 47.8 0.8 616

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 2024 according to

age difference with their husbands by area, 2006

Area Percentage of currently married women aged 20-24 whose husband

is:

No of

women

aged 20-

24 years

Younger 0-4 years

Older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s

age unknown

Rural 0.1 16.7 46.8 35.9 0.5 7421

Urban 0.1 15.9 46.3 37.1 0.5 2999

Urban

municipality

0.2 15.3 45.8 38.2 0.5 2190

City Corporation 0.0 17.6 47.6 34.4 0.4 809

Non-slum 0.0 17.4 47.7 34.5 0.4 729

Slum 0.0 19.7 46.7 32.9 0.7 80

Tribal 0.5 30.7 43.7 24.1 1.0 82

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

25

Table 03.04.4: Percentage distribution of currently married women aged 2024 according to

age difference with their husbands by education of women and girls, 2006

Women’s and

girl’s education

Percentage of currently married women aged 20-24 whose

husband is:

No of

women

aged 20-24

years

Younger 0-4 years

Older

5-9 years

older

10+ years

older

Husband’s age

unknown

None 0.0 15.2 48.4 35.8 0.5 2272

Primary

incomplete

0.0 18.3 47.4 34.1 0.1 1649

Primary complete 0.1 17.7 46.1 35.7 0.5 1442

Secondary

incomplete

0.1 16.7 47.3 35.3 0.6 3682

Secondary

completed or

higher

0.2 15.5 41.6 42.2 0.6 1409

Non-standard

curriculum

0.0 18.3 50.8 30.8 0.0 47

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

3.05 Marital Status

Marital status has close relation with fertility and population growth. Table 3.05 shows the

distribution of population by sex, residence and marital status.

Table 03.05: Marital status of population aged 10 years and above by sex, 19812011

(In percentage)

Age

group

1981 1991 2001 2011

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed

/Divorced/

separated

Male

Total 42.8 55.9 1.3 42.1 57.2 0.7 43.7 55.7 0.6 32.8 66.2 1.1

10-14 99.0 1.0 - 99.5 0.5 0 98.7 1.3 0.0 98.8 1.1 0.1

15-19 93.3 6.6 0.1 95 4.9 0.1 95.7 4.2 0.1 95.7 4.1 0.2

20-24 59.7 39.9 0.4 68.4 31.4 0.2 69.1 30.7 0.2 57.0 42.7 0.4

25-19 21.2 78.3 0.5 26.4 73.3 0.3 32.2 67.6 0.2 19.5 80.0 0.5

30-34 6.3 93.1 0.6 7.2 92.5 0.2 12 87.7 0.3 5.9 93.6 0.5

35-39 2.3 97.0 0.7 2.1 97.6 0.3 4.7 95 0.3 2.4 97.2 0.4

40-44 1.9 97.1 1.0 1.1 98.4 0.5 3.3 96.3 0.4 1.3 98.3 0.4

45-49 1.2 97.5 1.3 0.6 98.7 0.7 2.4 97 0.5 0.9 98.4 0.6

50-54 1.7 96.3 2.0 0.7 98.1 1.2 2.9 96.1 1.0 0.8 98.2 1.0

55-59 1.2 96.2 2.6 0.4 98 1.6 2.9 95.8 1.3 0.7 98.3 1.0

60+ 0.7 90.7 8.6 0.6 95.1 4.3 5 91.2 3.8 0.8 94.1 5.1

26

Age

group

1981 1991 2001 2011

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed/Divorc

ed/separated

Never married

Currently married

Widowed

/Divorced/

separated

Female

Total 23.7 63.4 12.9 25.2 64.8 10.0 29.0 63.0 8.0 20.1 70.6 9.4

10-14 98.0 70.0 - 96.8 3.0 0.2 96.1 3.4 0.5 97.6 2.1 0.3

15-19 31.3 65.4 3.3 48.7 49.6 1.7 62.6 36.2 1.1 57.3 41.6 1.1

20-24 5.1 90.9 4.0 10.5 86.6 2.9 17.6 80.5 1.9 9.1 89.2 1.7

25-19 1.3 94.4 4.3 2.4 94.0 3.6 6.6 91.0 2.4 2.6 95.6 1.8

30-34 1 92.2 6.1 1.1 93.8 5.1 3.9 92.0 4.1 1.2 96.0 2.8

35-39 0.4 89.8 9.6 0.6 92.1 7.3 2.5 91.4 6.1 0.7 95.0 4.2

40-44 0.7 81.9 17.4 0.6 86.9 12.5 2.6 87.2 10.2 0.7 91.9 7.4

45-49 0.3 74.5 25.2 0.4 81.7 17.9 2.1 84.3 13.6 0.6 89.0 10.5

50-54 1.4 62.3 36.3 0.5 70.6 28.9 3.0 75.2 21.8 0.7 82.4 17.0

55-59 0.7 54.4 44.9 0.4 64.3 35.2 3.2 71.8 25.0 0.5 77.9 21.5

60+ 0.5 32.9 66.6 0.8 42.9 56.3 6.3 48.0 45.7 0.8 49.2 50.0

Population Census, BBS

The percentage distribution of population aged 10 years and over by marital status, age and sex over time

are shown in table 3.05. The table shows a remarkable change in the proportions of never-married

population over time. The percentage of never-married females at age group 15-19 and 20-24 were 31.3

and 5.1 percent respective in 1981 and these have increased to 57.3 and 9.1 percent in 2011 which have

shown sharp upward trend.

3.06 Total Fertility

Population growth depends mainly on fertility. Bangladesh is still facing high population growth despite

falling fertility levels. Fertility level has declined overtime due to social and cultural uplift as well as

high rate of contraceptive use. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) defines as the sum of the Age-Specific Fertility

Rates (ASFR) over the whole range of reproductive ages for a particular period (usually a year). It can be

interpreted as the number of children, a women would have during her lifetime if she were to experience

the fertility rates of period at each age. Table 3.06 shows the total fertility per woman by residence.

Table 03.06: Total fertility rate (TFR) per women by residence, 19852010

Year National Rural Urban

1985 4.71 4.91 3.52

1990 4.33 4.57 2.90

1995 3.45 3.78 2.50

2000 2.59 2.89 1.68

2005 2.46 2.65 1.87

2010 2.12 2.23 1.72

Source: SVRS, BBS

27

It is evident from the table that total fertility rate (TFR) per woman experienced gradual declining

trend over the period from 1985 to 2010 at the national level. It was 4.71 in 1985 compared to 2.12 in

2010. It was also gradually declining both in urban and rural area. The fertility rates are higher in the

rural area compared to that in the urban area.

It is clear from other reports that family planning measures in Bangladesh had been made more

effective in the last two decades. Women have become more conscious about their health, social

status and family welfare.

3.07 AgeSpecific Fertility Rate

The Age-Specific Fertility rate (ASFR) per 1000 women is shown in table 3.07 for the age group 15-

49 years, the reproductive age group of women. It shows that ASFR of women had the decreasing

trend during 1985-2010. It is evident from the table that the dominant fertility age groups are 20-24,

25-29, 30-34 and 35-39 years.

Table 03.07: Agespecific fertility rates (ASFR) per 1000 women, 20022010

Age group 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

15-19 89 79 55 29 57 59

20-24 258 240 202 159 160 136

25-29 246 233 198 162 131 111

30-34 180 158 119 89 71 62

35-39 113 109 94 50 48 36

40-44 42 34 17 12 18 11

45-49 14 12 5 4 7 5

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

It is apparent from the table that during 1985-2010 ASFR was the highest at the age group 20-24

years, proceeded by age group 25-29 years and was the lowest at the age group 45-49 years. It is also

evident from the above table that ASFR per 1000 women had decreasing trend during 1985-2010.

3.08 Total Marital Fertility Rate

The data on marital fertility rate per married women for the period 1991-2010 are shown in table 3.08.

Total marital fertility rate (TMFR) refers to number of children ever born per 1000 ever-married women.

Marital fertility rates for women of completed fertility are an especially useful measure for comparing

the overall level of fertility of two or more population at different years.

Table 03.08: Total marital fertility rate by residence, 19912010

Year National Rural Urban

1991 5.42 - -

1995 5.15 - -

2000 3.99 4.43 2.05

2005 3.40 3.52 2.28

2010 3.33 3.54 2.88

Source: Report on SVRS, BBS

It is evident from the table that the marital fertility rate for the country as a whole has declined over the

period. The rate has fallen from 5.42 in 1991 to 3.33 in 2010. But in urban area it had increased. It was

2.05 in 2000 to 2.88 in 2010.

28

3.09 General Fertility Rate

General Fertility Rate (GFR) per 1000 women of childbearing age 15-49 in the population indicates the

number of live births in a specified period. Levels, trends and patterns of GFR for the period 1985-2010

can be seen in table 3.09. It is evident that the general fertility rate for the country as a whole has

declined over the period.

Table 03.09: General fertility rate by residence, 19852010

Year National Rural Urban

1985 156 162 119

1990 144 154 98

1995 130 135 86

2000 81 90 53

2005 82 89 64

2010 71 59 76

Source: Report on SVRS, BBS

3.10 Children Ever Born

Table 3.10 shows comparison of the mean number of children ever born by age group of women.

It is an indication of the cumulative changes in fertility over the years from 2000 to 2007.

Table 03.10: Trend in mean number of children ever born by age group, 2000, 2004, 2007 &

2011.

Age group 2000 2004 2007 2011

15-19 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

20-24 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2

25-29 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.2

30-34 3.6 3.4 3.2 2.9

35-39 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.4

40-44 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.9

45-49 6.1 5.6 4.9 4.5

Total 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2

Source: BDHS, 2004, 2007 and 2011 (NIPORT)

It is apparent from the table that there was decreasing trend in the mean number of children from 2000

to 2011, especially among women age 25 years and above.

3.11 Divorce and Separation Rate

Divorce as well as separation rate is increasing day by day in Bangladesh. It may be due to inability

in maintaining expenditure, physical torture, re-marriage, dowry, failure to conjugal life, and child

marriage.

The data on crude divorce rate by sex and residence can be seen in table 3.11.1. It is evident from

the table that at national level both women and men divorce rate had been increasing between 2002

and 2010.

29

Table 03.11.1: Crude divorce rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 20022010

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2002 0.95 0.29 1.04 0.34 0.54 0.09

2004 0.99 0.27 1.12 0.31 0.56 0.12

2006 0.95 0.22 1.41 0.39 0.71 0.19

2008 0.93 0.24 0.97 0.22 0.82 0.27

2010 1.22 0.40 1.31 0.40 0.98 0.40

Source: SVRS-2008, 2009, 2010,BBS

This trend was same for the urban and rural areas. But there was a vast difference between women

and men divorce rate, with a larger gap in the rural areas. The crude divorce rates for women were 2

times higher than that of men.

Crude separation rate for 2002-2010 by sex and residence can be seen in table 3.11.2. It is apparent

from the table that the separation rates for women were higher than men.

Table 03.11.2: Crude separation rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 200210

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2002 0.45 0.18 0.39 0.19 0.08 0.10

2004 0.35 0.22 0.33 0.26 0.46 0.08

2006 0.27 0.13 0.30 0.23 0.42 0.06

2008 0.28 0.13 0.31 0.16 0.22 0.08

2010 0.33 0.15 0.32 0.15 0.38 0.17

Source: SVRS, BBS

3.12 AgeSpecific Divorce and Separation Rate

The data on age-specific divorce rate by age and sex is shown in table 3.12.1. In 2010 the table that

age-specific divorce rate for women was the highest in the younger ages 15-24 (4.62 at the age

group 20-24, followed by 4.36 at the age group 15-19).

Table 03.12.1: Agespecific divorce rate by age group and sex, 20052010

Age –

group

2005 2007 2009 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men

15-19 4.14 0.36 2.56 0.21 4.16 0.23 4.36 0.37

20-24 3.09 0 .87 2.61 0.61 3.50 1.16 4.62 1.49

25-29 1.04 0.62 0.88 0.42 1.38 1.02 2.04 1.09

30-34 0.35 0.38 0.27 0.13 0.73 0.50 0.92 0.97

35+ 0.13 0.14 0.22 0.19 0.18 0.20 0.26 0.23

Total 1.09 0.30 0.69 0.23 1.09 0.33 1.22 0.40

Source: Report on Sample Vital Registration System 2010, BBS

30

For men it was the highest in the following ages of 20-29.In general, age-specific divorce rate for

women were much higher than that of men almost in all age group.

The data on age-specific separation rate by sex with their age groups is shown in table 3.12.2. The age

patterns are similar to the age patterns for divorce rates.

Table 03.12.2: Agespecific separation rate by age group and sex, 20052010

Age group 2005 2007 2009 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men

15-19 0.77 0.41 0.58 0.16 0.78 0.09 0.71 0.19

20-24 0.83 0.70 1.98 0.32 1.14 0.35 1.08 0.41

25-29 0.57 0.74 0.52 0.26 0.55 0.46 0.57 0.33

30-34 0.18 0.39 0.23 0.12 0.39 0.32 0.52 0.21

35+ 0.12 0.17 0.33 0.08 0.14 0.11 0.19 0.17

Total 0.80 021 0.44 0.17 0.37 0.15 0.33 0.15

Source: Report on Sample Vital Registration System 2010, BBS

3.13 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

In Bangladesh, contraceptive use has risen over the years. The Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR)

according to the year and residence is shown in table 3.13.1. It is evident from the table that there was

increasing trend of CPR over time. At national level, it was 39.7% in 1990 and rose to 56.7% in 2010.

Table 03.13.1: Trends in contraceptive use by year and residence, 19902010 (current user)

(In percentage)

Year National Rural Urban

1990 39.7 38.6 46.8

1995 48.7 43.9 57.1

2001 53.9 52.7 59.1

2005 57.0 55.2 60.4

2010 56.7 55.3 60.9

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

It is also observed that CPR was considerably higher in urban area as compared to rural area. Use of

contraceptive (any method) by age of mother is shown in the following table 3.13.2

Table 03.13.2: Age specific contraceptive use , 20052010 (current user)

Age- group 2005 2007 2010

15-19 35.6 34.46 42.64

20-24 52.6 53.48 52.91

25-29 61.3 63.57 69.41

30-34 60.7 64.37 64.43

35-39 56.9 60.44 62.64

40-44 44.4 47.76 54.25

45-49 27.5 31.49 45.67

Total 52.5 55.0 56.7

Source: Report on SVRS, BBS

31

The table shows that according to the SVRS-2010 survey among the currently married women,

56.7% reported using family planning methods before interview. Women of age group 30-34 years

had the highest use rate (64.43%) followed by the age group 35-39 years (62.64.8%). Lowest user

of contraceptive was in the age group 15-19 years (42.64%).

Table 03.13.4: Contraceptive prevalence rate by methods and residence, 2008–2010

Method 2005 2007 2010

Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban

Any method 57.0 55.5 60.6 55.0 53.8 57.0 56.7 55.3 60.9

Any modern method 51.7 50.6 55.6 51.8 51.1 53.0 54.8 53.3 58.5

Modern method for female

Oral pill 35.5 35.1 37.9 34.5 34.6 34.3 34.4 33.8 35.7

Injection 7.8 8.0 6.5 10.3 10.7 9.5 12.7 12.9 11.9

Female sterilization 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.9 2.0 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.0

IUD 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.7

Modern method for male

Condom 5.2 4.9 7.6 4.4 3.0 6.7 3.8 2.7 7.0

Men sterilization 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3

Traditional method 5.5 4.9 6.0 3.3 2.8 4.1 2.0 1.8 2.4

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

Current use of family planning methods and urban-rural differentials to the year 2005-2010 has been

shown in table 3.13.4. The table contains data on CPR of currently married women showing variations

between urban and rural levels.

It is apparent from the table that the overall rate of current use was higher in urban area than in rural

area in 2005 and in 2010.

32

33

CHAPTER 4

Health and Nutrition

The importance of nutrition to achieve optimal health is unquestionable. Balanced nutrition is central to

maintain good health in a dilapidated environment, fight against disease, correct imbalances in the body

and provide energy and enthusiasm for life. This chapter deals with the data on crude death rate (CDR), Age Specific Death Rate (ASDR), Infant Mortality Rate, (IMR) Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), Post

Neonatal Mortality Rate (PNMR), Child Mortality Rate (CMR), Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR),

causes of death, children and mother’s nutritional status, immunization and vitamin-A supplement etc.

4.01 Crude Death Rate

Crude Death Rate (CDR) by sex and area are shown in table 4.01. There has been steady decline in

CDR for both women and men from 1981 till 2010. It is also observed that at the national level

CDR was higher for men 6.2 compared to women 5.0 per 1000 population in 2010, observed in

both rural and urban areas.

Table 04.01: Crude death rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 19812010

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1981 11.5 11.6 12.3 12.1 7.0 7.5

1985 12.2 11.9 12.9 13.0 7.9 8.7

1990 11.0 11.4 11.7 11.9 7.7 8.0

1995 8.9 8.6 8.8 9.3 6.5 6.9

2000 4.6 5.1 4.7 5.7 3.4 3.6

2005 5.1 5.6 5.4 6.7 4.1 5.7

2010 5.0 6.2 5.2 6.3 4.2 5.7

Source: Report on Sample Vital Registration System, BBS

4.02 AgeSpecific Death Rate

Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR) for 2008 and 2010 by sex and area are shown in table 4.02. Death

rates have declined up to ages 40-44 years for both men and women but appear to have increased

for older ages. It is observed from the table that ASDR was higher for women as compared to men

in the age group 5-9, 15-19 and 20-24 in 2010. The higher mortality rate in the age groups 15-19

and 20-24 for the women may be due to early marriage and maternal mortality.

Table 04.02: Agespecific death rate per 1000 population by sex and residence, 2008 & 2010

Age group National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2008

00 49.95 48.03 50.24 51.74 46.90 39.51

01 7.15 6.22 6.16 6.34 10.63 6.18

02 2.82 5.49 3.15 4.80 1.65 7.95

03 2.55 2.72 2.77 3.17 1.86 1.27

04 2.14 1.91 2.21 2.41 1.89 0.32

34

Age group National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1-4 3.55 3.94 3.49 4.14 3.76 3.28

5-9 1.44 1.66 1.58 2.00 0.99 0.50

10-14 0.70 1.04 0.76 1.09 0.53 0..84

15-19 1.19 1.31 1.18 1.42 1.20 0.97

20-24 1.18 1.28 1.31 1.25 0.85 1.38

25-29 1.45 1.04 1.58 1.05 1.13 1.38

30-34 2.06 1.74 2.28 1.94 1.46 1.02

35-39 2.02 2.46 2.09 2.79 1.84 1.64

40-44 3.10 3.75 3.49 4.21 1.98 2.56

45-49 3.76 4.81 3.32 4.97 5.04 4.37

50-54 6.41 9.16 7.36 10.24 3.28 6.05

55-59 8.71 13.52 8.90 13.80 8.05 12.71

60-64 17.83 23.95 18.36 23.60 12.16 25.10

65-69 29.86 35.54 30.44 36.36 27.66 32.38

70-74 46.57 58.77 43.79 57.16 58.17 65.25

75-79 62.20 83.10 63.97 80.86 66.83 92.46

80+ 126.98 130.00 125.97 136.16 131.08 102.36

2010

00 34.45 41.63 35.05 45.12 32.73 31.51

01 2.91 3.99 3.19 4.46 2.10 2.61

02 2.55 2.38 2.56 2.74 2.51 1.33

03 1.78 1.54 1.93 1.72 1.31 1.02

04 1.46 2.06 1.78 2.24 0.51 1.53

1-4 2.13 2.44 2.33 2.73 1.57 1.59

5-9 1.05 0.87 1.18 0.98 0.68 0.57

10-14 0.92 1.29 0.96 1.23 0.82 1.47

15-19 1.07 1.00 1.21 0.98 0.67 1.06

20-24 1.39 1.10 1.53 0.95 0.98 1.52

25-29 1.41 1.66 1.57 1.84 0.94 1.14

30-34 1.00 1.74 1.12 2.03 0.63 0.90

35-39 1.80 1.87 1.86 1.65 1.63 2.52

40-44 2.80 2.89 2.80 2.73 2.79 3.36

45-49 4.05 5.19 3.98 5.21 4.25 5.14

50-54 9.94 10.14 10.61 10.67 7.99 8.63

55-59 12.79 14.00 11.66 14.14 16.05 13.58

60-64 21.39 24.26 21.68 25.04 20.55 22.00

65-69 30.96 37.54 30.81 38.54 31.39 34.64

70-74 46.60 51.02 45.36 49.55 50.18 55.28

75-79 86.73 88.14 81.75 84.31 101.18 99.27

80+ 127.68 141.17 127.48 143.22 128.26 135.22

Source: Report on SVRS, BBS

35

4.03 Neonatal Mortality Rate

Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) is defined as the number of deaths of infants before attaining age of one

month per 1000 live births in a given year. Neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and area

for the year 1981 to 2010 has been shown in table 4.03. It is apparent from the table that neonatal

mortality rates for both girls and boys have declined.

Table 04.03: Neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and locality for 19812010

Year National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

1981 72 89 73 90 81 62

1985 60 67 62 67 73 45

1990 62 71 64 73 51 44

1995 50 64 54 58 37 35

2000 39 41 41 45 29 28

2005 30 36 31 39 28 28

2010 24 28 23 29 26 25

Source: SVRS, BBS

In case of girls at the national level, the neonatal mortality rate has declined from 72 in 1981 to 24 in

2010 and that in case of boys, it has declined from 89 to 28 during the same period, the decline being

greater for girls, especially in urban areas.

4.04 Post Neonatal Mortality Rate

Post neonatal mortality rate is also a mortality index of infants defined as the death rate of child per 1000

live births in a year for children of age 1 month to 11 months. Table 4.04 shows the post neonatal

mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence for the year 1981-2010.

Table 04.04: Post neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 19812010

Year National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

1981 37 24 38 24 31 24

1985 49 47 50 48 43 36

1990 29 27 29 28 24 22

1995 20 19 24 22 17 17

2000 18 17 19 18 16 15

2005 17 16 17 16 15 17

2010 11 10 12 10 10 9

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010 BBS

At the national level, the post neonatal mortality rates for both girls and boys have declined. Such rate

also declined for urban and rural areas during the same period. Declines in both neonatal and post

neonatal death rates have been somewhat greater for girls compared to boys.

36

4.05 Infant Mortality Rate

Infant mortality rate, the death of babies before one year of age per 1000 live births by sex and

residence for the year 1981-2010 is shown in table 4.05. It is observed from the table that the infant

mortality rate at the national level for both girls and boys has declined over the years.

Table 04.05: Infant (<1 year) mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 1981

2010

Year National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

1981 109 113 111 114 93 105

1985 109 114 112 115 87 109

1990 91 98 93 101 68 73

1995 70 73 76 80 52 55

2000 57 59 62 63 43 45

2005 47 52 48 54 43 45

2010 35 38 35 39 36 35

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010 BBS

The infant mortality rate of boys is higher than that of girls, and the female advantage has persisted over

time.

It is also evident from the table that IMR was higher in the rural area compared to the urban area, where

the female advantage is relatively less

4.06 Child Mortality Rate

The child mortality rate is the number of deaths between the ages of 1-4 years, excluding infant mortality.

The data on child mortality rate by sex and area is shown in table 4.06. It is apparent from the table that

the child mortality rate for both girls and boys has declined significantly since 1981.

Table 04.06: Child mortality rate (14 years) by sex and residence, 19812010

Year National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

1981 18.0 15.6 18.8 16.3 10.3 8.5

1985 16.4 14.0 16.8 14.5 11.9 9.0

1990 14.8 13.4 15.7 14.2 8.2 8.5

1995 12.2 12.7 12.5 12.1 7.4 7.8

2000 4.7 4.0 5.0 4.2 4.4 3.6

2005 4.0 4.1 4.6 4.4 2.0 3.2

2010 2.3 3.0 2.4 3.3 1.9 2.2

Source: SVRS, BBS

While child mortality was higher for girls than for boys until the early 1990s, the gender gap has

disappeared, may even have reversed, since the mid 1990s. As in the case of other mortality rates, there is

the usual rural urban difference with higher mortality in rural areas.

37

4.07 Under 5 Mortality Rate

Under-5 mortality rate is the number of deaths to children under 5 years of age per 1000 live births in the

given year. The data on under-5 mortality rate by sex and area is shown in table 4.07. It is evident from

the table that under-5 mortality rate for both girls and boys have declined significantly.

Table 04.07: Under 5 mortality rate per 1000 live births by sex and residence, 19822010

Year National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

1982 214 211 224 218 106 137

1985 172 169 176 172 127 135

1990 149 154 155 160 96 103

1995 121 128 128 133 81 85

2000 84 86 89 91 54 56

2005 65 70 68 73 52 60

2010 43 50 43 52 43 44

Source: SVRS, BBS

4.08 Maternal Mortality Ratio

The maternal mortality ratio is defined as the number of total deaths of women due to complications of

pregnancy, childbirths and puerperal per 1000 live births during a year.

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is a very important mortality index of mother who is exposed to the risk

of death during childbirth. The data on maternal mortality ratio by residence are shown in table 4.08.

Table 04.08: Maternal mortality ratio by residence, 19862010

Year National Rural Urban

1986 6.48 6.69 5.79

1989 5.08 5.78 4.60

1992 4.68 4.80 3.98

1995 4.47 4.52 3.80

1998 3.23 3.36 2.85

2001 3.15 3.26 2.58

2004 3.65 3.87 2.53

2007 3.51 3.86 2.19

2010 2.16 2.30 1.78

Source: SVRS, BBS

It is observed from the table that at the national level the maternal mortality ratio has decreased from 6.48

in 1986 to 2.16 in 2010 nationally, with relatively greater decline in the urban areas. Whereas in Maternal

Mortality Survey it was found that maternal mortality ratio has decline from 322/100,000 live births to

194/100,000 live birth between BMMS 2001 to BMMS 2010 respective.

38

4.09 Causes of Maternal Death

At the national level, hemorrhage after delivery was the leading cause of maternal mortality, which was

27.2 % of total maternal deaths in 2010 and 23.4 % in 2009. The second cause 20.7% in 2010 and 19.5%

in 2009 occurred due to one of the reasons for prolonged labour/retained placenta/prolapsed cord/

lacerations /tear.

Table 04.09: Distribution of causes of maternal mortality by residence, 2009 and 2010

Causes 2010 2009

National Rural Urban National Rural Urban

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Complicated pregnancy/

Convulsion/Eclamsia

6.8 6.3 8.3 11.7 13.1 6.3

Complicated child birth/ Retained

placenta/Prolonged labour/ Prolapsed

cord/Lacerations/Tear

20.7 25.0 8.3 19.5 19.7 18.8

hemorrhages after delivery 27.2 25.0 33.3 23.4 24.6 18.8

Complicated abortion 15.9 15.6 16.7 19.5 14.8 37.5

Hemorrhages during pregnancy 15.8 12.5 25.0 13.0 13.1 12.5

Tetanus 13.7 15.6 8.3 13.0 14.8 6.3

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

The pattern of causes of maternal death varies by rural urban residence. In rural areas, complicated

childbirth and tetanus are more important while in urban areas hemorrhages is more important.

4.10 Principal Causes of Death

The data on principal causes of death for women and men are shown in table 4.10. It is evident from the

table that death due to blood pressure, heart diseases and tumor/cancer has been increased over time. In

case of blood pressure, it was higher for men as compared to women.

Table 04.10: Principal causes of death per 100,000 populations by sex and residence, 2004

2010

Residence Sex Cases of death

Fever Blood

pressure,

Heart

disease

Old age

complication

Asthma

respiratory

disease

Others

disease

Tumor

cancer

Suicide,

poisoning

2004

National Women 52.0 39.7 98.1 63 66.5 22 28.1

Men 55.1 80.8 98.3 112 90.1 30 41.9

Rural Women 57.1 36.5 106.5 68.6 71.9 23.4 29.9

Men 58.5 76.3 105.8 114.6 94.2 31.4 43.4

Urban Women 30.2 53.2 61.9 37.8 43.5 15.9 20.8

Men 40.9 100.0 66.0 101.0 72.5 23.8 35.5

39

Residence Sex Cases of death

Fever Blood

pressure,

Heart

disease

Old age

complication

Asthma

respiratory

disease

Others

disease

Tumor

cancer

Suicide,

poisoning

2006

National Women 41.1 54.2 104.7 78.1 11.2 26.3 41.3

Men 46.3 97.5 90.1 102.8 10.6 41.9 49.4

Rural Women 46.5 49.1 114.2 85.7 12.3 26.2 47.4

Men 52.5 90.2 97.8 115.7 12.7 42.8 52.7

Urban Women 24.8 69.8 75.9 55.3 8 26.9 22.8

Men 26.9 120.2 65.8 62.5 4.3 39.2 39.1

2007

National Women 36.2 61.9 122.4 77.9 17.3 34.5 36.7

Men 42.0 122.0 102.2 129.1 21.1 54.2 52.3

Rural Women 41.1 61.7 126.8 83.8 18.9 36.2 40.1

Men 48.4 124.3 102.5 143.8 25.4 55.7 57.2

Urban Women 21.5 62.5 109.2 60.2 12.2 29.4 26.5

Men 22.3 145.7 100.2 84.2 8.2 49.9 37.1

2010

National Women 24.7 76.76 102.8 41.24 60.5 42.9 29.6

Men 27.1 130.1 102.7 66.0 78.9 48.8 47.6

Rural Women 29.8 75.3 108.0 49.4 65.4 42.9 31.8

Men 33.6 105.5 113.6 77.5 85.1 47.4 54.4

Urban Women 7.8 39.6 46.9 13.4 26.0 21.4 12.9

Men 15.6 174.1 83.3 45.4 67.6 51.5 35.3

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

In case of women at the national level in 2010, old age complication was the principal cause of death

(102.8) per 100,000 population followed by asthma and respiratory problem (41.24) and blood pressure

and heart disease (76.76). In case of men, asthma respiratory disease (66.0) was the principal cause of

death followed by blood pressure, heart diseases (130.1) and old age complication (102.7).

4.11 Percentage Distribution of Death by Causes

Percentage distributions of deaths by causes, sex and residence for the year 2010 are shown in table 4.11.

It is evident from the table that at the national level, among the women, the highest percentage of deaths

due to old age (21.1%) followed by heart diseases (13.6%) and asthma, respiratory diseases (8.7%) in

2010.

40

Table 04.11: Percentage distribution of death of causes by sex and residence, 2010

Causes of death National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Chickenpox, Measles, Polio 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9

Fever: Malaria, Typhoid, Influenza,

Dengue, Other fever

5.1 4.6 5.7 5.3 3.7 2.7

Jaundice 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.1 1.6

Diarrhea, Cholera 1.8 1.1 2.0 0.9 1.3 1.5

Dysentery 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4

Tuberculosis, Water lungs 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 0.6 1.6

Asthma, Respiratory disease 8.7 11.1 9.5 12.2 6.3 7.9

Pneumonia 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.8 5.4 4.2

High blood pressure 2.3 2.8 2.5 3.0 1.9 2.3

Heart disease, Stroke, Brain hemorrhage 13.6 18.4 12.3 14.5 17.7 29.8

Diabetes 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.7 2.0

Rheumatism, Rheumatic fever 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 1.2 0.8

Paralysis 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.1 0.4

Diphtheria/Meningitis 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.0

Peptic ulcer 1.0 0.2 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.2

Malnutrition 1.9 1.2 2.0 1.1 1.9 1.2

Tumor, Cancer 8.7 7.8 8.3 7.5 10.1 9.0

Skin disease, Leprosy, Arsenic 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2

Pregnancy related problem 1.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.8 0.0

Tetanus 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0

Suicide, Murder, Burn, Snakebite,

Poisoning, Drowning, Other accident

6.3 8.0 6.3 8.6 6.3 6.2

Mental disease, Drug abuse, Epilepsy, Mrigi 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.8 0.8 1.2

Old age 21.1 17.0 20.8 17.9 22.2 14.5

ENT disease 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.2

Gonorrhea, HIV, Aids 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2

Appendicitis, Kidney problem 1.6 1.8 1.4 1.8 2.1 1.8

Other diseases 11.6 11.3 11.6 12.0 11.6 9.3

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

On the other hand, among the men the highest percentage of death was due to heart disease 18.4%

followed by old age 17.0% and asthma, respiratory diseases 11.1%. There exists variation in rural and

urban area and between women and men. It is observed from the table that death due to asthma,

respiratory disease was higher in the rural area than its urban counterpart for both women and men and it

was higher for women compared to men. On the contrary, deaths due to blood pressure, heart disease,

stroke was higher in the urban area than rural area for both women and men but it was higher for men as

compared to women.

4.12 Expectation of Life

Expectation of life at birth is the average number of years of life remaining at beginning, i.e. ‘0’ year of

age. It is computed on the basis of the assumption on age specific mortality experience. Table 4.12

shows the expectation of life at birth by sex and residence for the year 1981 to 2010.

41

Table 04.12: Expectation of life at birth by sex and residence, 19812010

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1981 54.5 55.3 53.9 54.9 60.5 59.8

1985 54.6 55.7 54.1 55.3 60.5 59.9

1990 55.6 56.6 54.9 56.0 59.7 60.3

1995 58.1 58.4 57.7 57.3 60.9 61.5

2000 63.5 63.7 62.7 61.7 65.4 65.2

2005 65.8 64.4 65.6 63.5 68.1 67.6

2010 68.8 66.6 68.6 66.4 69.5 68.3

Source: SVRS, BBS

It is evident from the table that expectation of life at birth for women was higher than that of men by

2.2 percentage points in 2010. Expectation of life at birth for men and women were also higher over

the years in the urban area as compared to rural area.

It is also observed from the table that expectation of life at birth with the current mortality

experience of 2010 has increased by 14.3 percentage points for women and by 11.3 percentage

points for men as compared to those of 1981. Similar increasing trend in expectation of lives had

taken place in rural and urban areas for both men and women.

4.13 Abridged Life Table

A life table is a table, which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will

die before his or her next birthday. For this table, the period of life expectancy at a given age represents

the average number of years of the life remaining of a group of persons at that age were to experience the

mortality rates for 2010 over the course of their remaining life. In 2010, the over all men expectation of

life at birth was 66.6 years, representing an increase of 0.5 years from life expectancy in 2009.

42

Table 04.13: Abridged life table for Bangladesh population by sex, 2010

Age

Both Men Women

Probability

of dying Number of

surviving

Expectation

of life

Probability

of dying

Number of

surviving

Expectation

of life

Probability

of dying

Number of

surviving

Expectation

of life

National

0 0.03744 100000 67.74 0.04056 100000 66.64 0.03411 100000 68.79

1 0.00345 96256 69.40 0.00398 95944 68.71 0.00291 96589 70.24

2 0.00246 95924 68.64 0.00238 95562 67.98 0.00255 96309 69.44

3 0.00165 95688 67.80 0.00154 95335 67.14 0.00178 96063 68.62

4 0.00176 95530 66.92 0.00206 95188 66.24 0.00146 95892 67.74

1-4 0.00912 95363 70.01 0.00971 94992 69.36 0.00848 95752 70.82

5-9 0.00479 94493 66.64 0.00434 94070 66.02 0.00524 94940 67.41

10-14 0.00553 94040 61.95 0.00643 93661 61.30 0.00459 94443 62.75

15-19 0.00519 93520 57.28 0.00499 93059 56.68 0.00534 94010 58.03

20-24 0.00623 93035 52.57 0.00548 92595 51.95 0.00693 93508 53.33

25-29 0.00762 92455 47.88 0.00827 92087 47.22 0.00703 92860 48.68

30-34 0.00668 91751 43.23 0.00866 91326 42.59 0.00499 92208 44.01

35-39 0.00916 91138 38.50 0.00931 90535 37.95 0.00896 91748 39.22

40-44 0.01415 90303 33.83 0.01435 89692 33.28 0.01390 90926 34.55

45-49 0.02313 89026 29.28 0.02820 88405 28.73 0.01681 89662 30.00

50-54 0.04978 86967 24.92 0.04506 85913 24.49 0.05234 88155 25.47

55-59 0.06469 82637 21.09 0.06945 82041 20.52 0.05910 83541 21.74

60-64 0.10830 77292 17.38 0.11694 76343 16.87 0.09859 78603 17.95

65-69 0.15821 68921 14.19 0.17172 67416 13.77 0.14389 70854 14.64

70-74 0.21775 58017 11.38 0.22675 55839 11.11 0.20813 60658 11.68

75-79 0.35891 45384 8.85 0.37021 43177 8.63 0.34683 48034 9.09

80+ 1.00000 29095 7.41 1.00000 27193 7.24 1.00000 31374 7.59

Source: Report on SVRS, 2010, BBS

4.14 Infant and Young Child Feeding

Infant and young child feeding practices are key to the survival, health, growth and development of

children. Infants should be breastfed immediately after delivery (within one hour); given no prenatal

feeds; exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life; and given complementary foods from six

months of age with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of life.

Table 04.14: Percentage of breastfeeding of infant and young children by residence, 2006

Indicator National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

Children 0-3 months: Exclusive breast feeding 51.5 48.0 51.3 49.0 51.3 44.9

Children 0-5 months: Exclusive breast feeding 39.0 36.0 40.0 35.5 34.2 36.0

Children 6-9 months: Breastfed and solid food 53.2 50.3 55.9 50.8 44.3 49.1

Children 12-15 months: Breastfed 96.6 94.4 97.8 96.3 93.0 88.3

Children 20-23 months: Breastfed 90.0 88.4 90.4 89.7 88.7 85.1

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey -2006, BBS

The table provides information on reported breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. 39.0%

of girls aged < 6 months compared to 36% boys at the same age were exclusive breastfed. The exclusive

breastfeeding rate (EBR) for girls and boys declined from age 0-3 months to age 0-5 months.

43

More than 53% girls and 50% boys were given timely complementary feeding at 6-9 months of age.

More than 96% girls and 94% boys were breastfed at 12-15 months of age and 90.0% girls and 88%

boys were still breastfed at 20-23 months of age. There was no significant difference between rural and

urban areas in any of these indicators.

4.15 Child Nutrition Status

Children nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. Malnutrition is associated with more

than half of all children deaths worldwide. Improving nutrition particularly in the recent years is crucial

towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

The following table14.15 shows the prevalence of malnutrition in children aged <5 years (WHO, 2005

GRS) by sex and residence.

Table 04.15: Prevalence of malnutrition (WHO 2005 GRS) in children aged <5 years by sex

and area of residence, 200012

Indicator National(%) Rural(%) Urban(%)

Both Girls Boys Both Girls Boys Both Girls Boys

2000

Underweight (WAZ WHO<-2) 51.0 50.5 51.4 51.3 51.1 51.6 43.5 40.0 47.5

Stunting (HAZ WHO<-2) 48.2 48.9 47.5 48.8 49.9 47.8 34.9 41.3 29.4

Wasting (WHZ WHO<-2) 12.0 12.7 11.3 12.1 11.4 12.7 9.1 7.8 10.6

Obesity (BAZ WHO<-2) - - - - - - - - -

MUAC <125 mm 6.5 8.4 4.7 7.0 3.6

2005

Underweight (WAZ WHO<-2) 39.7 39.0 40.3 42.2 41.3 43.0 29.9 29.7 30.1

Stunting (HAZ WHO<-2) 46.2 45.3 47.1 48.8 48.2 49.4 35.9 33.7 38.0

Wasting (WHZ WHO<-2) 14.5 14.5 14.5 15.1 14.8 15.3 12.2 13.3 11.2

Obesity (BAZ WHO<-2) 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.9

MUACZ 27.1 26.5 27.7 29.3 28.4 30.1 19.3 18.1 18.5

MUAC <125 mm 4.3 5.6 3.2 4.8 6.2 3.4 2.4 2.7 2.2

2012

Underweight (WAZ WHO<-2) 34.4 29.9 38.6 35.2 30.6 39.8 31.7 27.5 35.1

Stunting (HAZ WHO<-2) 41.2 42.0 40.5 42.7 43.3 42.1 36.4 37.2 35.7

Wasting (WHZ WHO<-2) 13.4 10.9 15.7 13.6 11.0 16.2 12.6 10.8 14.2

Obesity (BAZ WHO<-2) 4.1 3.9 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.6 5.5 4.4 6.4

MUACZ 6.8 6.4 7.2 7.6 7.2 8.0 4.2 3.3 4.9

MUAC <125 mm 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.3 3.2 3.3 2.2 2.9 1.5

Source: Child and Mother Nutrition Survey of Bangladesh-2005, BBS and CNS-2011,BBS

It is observed from the table 4.15 that at the national level among the girls the prevalence of

underweight was 29.9%, which was lower than that of boys in 2012. The same trend was observed

for the prevalence of stunting. It was 42.0% for the girls and 40.5% for the boys. In case of wasting,

it was same,10.9% for the girls and 15.7 for the boys. According to criteria of the World Health

Organization, the prevalence of underweight and stunting was “very high”, and the prevalence of

wasting indicated a “critical problem”.

44

4.16 Low Birth Weight

Low Birth Weight (LBW) is one of the most important determinants of infant survival. The

prevalence of LBW in Bangladesh is believed to be amongst the highest in the world. Table 4.16

shows the prevalence of low birth weight by sex and residence for the year 2003-04.

Table 4.16: Prevalence of low birth weight by sex and residence, 20032004

Sex Prevalence of LBW ( birth weight< 2500g)

Rural (%) Urban (%) National (%)

Girls 38.8 31.4 37.9

Boys 34.4 26.6 33.3

All 36.7 29.0 35.6

Source: National Low Birth Weight Survey of Bangladesh, 2003-2004, BBS

Note: Includes infants whose birth weights are measured within 72 hours of birth.

It is evident from the table that at the national level the prevalence of LBW was higher among girls

(38%) than boys (33%) by five percentage points. The percentage of LBW was lower in urban areas

compared to rural areas, but the gender gap persists.

4.17 Immunization

Immunization plays a vital role in realizing the fourth MDG of reducing child mortality by two thirds

between 1990 and 2015. Immunization has saved the lives of millions of children since the launch of the

Expanded Programs on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Table 4.17 shows the percentage of children aged

12-23 months immunized against BCG, DPT3, Polio3 and Measles by sex for the year 1995, 2006 and

2011.

Table 04.17: Percentage of children aged 1223 months immunized against BCG, DPT3,

Polio3 and Measles by sex, 1995, 2006 and 2011

Immunization HDS-1995 MICS-2006 BDHS-2011

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

BCG 71.1 71.1 96.3 97.7 97.6 98.1

DPT3 75.0 76.7 99.1 91.0 92.3 94.6

Polio3 75.9 75.7 95.6 95.5 92.5 94.3

Measles 73.8 73.9 86.5 88.5 86.8 88.3

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, BBS , BDHS 2011, NIPORT

It is apparent from the table that at the national level 97.6% girls received BCG and for the boys it was

98.1% in 2011. In case of DPT3 the similar trend was revealed for both girls and boys. The coverage for

measles vaccination was lower than for other immunization, 86.8% for girls and 88.3% for boys.

4.18 Vitamin A Supplement

Vitamin A is essential for preserving eye sight and proper functioning of the immune system. Providing

young children with two doses of vitamin ‘A’ capsule a year is a safe, cost-effective, efficient strategy

for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Table 4.18 shows the percentage distribution

of children aged 9-59 months who received high doses of vitamin ‘A’ supplement.

45

Table 04.18: Percentage distribution of children received high doses of vitamin A

supplement in the last 6 months by sex and residence, 2006

Residence Girls Boys Both sex

2006-MICS

National 88.8 89.6 89.2

Rural 87.9 88.6 88.3

Urban 91.5 92.4 92.0

2011-BDHS

National 59.5 59.0 60.0

Rural 60.1 - -

Urban 57.5 - -

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, BBS, BDHS, 2011, NIPORT

It is observed from the table that at the national level, among the girls percentage of vitamin A

supplement was slightly lower as compared to boys. There exists a slight variation in urban and

rural areas. There appears to be a large drop in Vitamin supplementation from 2006 to 2011.

4.19 Antenatal Care

The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number

of interventions that may be vital to their health and well being and that of their infants. Coverage

of antenatal care (by a doctor, nurse or midwife) is relatively low in Bangladesh. Table 4.19 shows

the type of personnel providing antenatal care to mothers aged 15-49 who give birth in the three

years preceding the survey. It is observed from the table that about 91.3 percent of the surveyed

mothers received at least two doses of tetanus-toxoid vaccine during their previous pregnancy in

2011.

Table 04.19: Percentage distribution of mothers aged 1549 who gave birth in the three

years preceding the survey by receiving antenatal care, 2004, 2007 and 2011.

Indictors 2004

BDHS

2007

BDHS

2011

BDHS

1. Antenatal coverage 50.5 53.4 54.8

2. TT coverage - 90.7 91.3

3. Post natal care 19.3 23.4 29.0

4. Antenatal care provider

Medical doctor 31.3 35.5 43.1

Nurse/ Midwife 17.4 15.7 16.1

MA/SACMO/HA/FWA 3.5 0.5 0.7

Trained birth attendant 0.1 0.0 0.3

Un-trained birth attendant 2.6 8.6 0.2

Other 1.0 - 0.1

Source: BDHS, NIPORT and MICS,BBS

It is observed from the table that antenatal coverage increased between 2004 and 2007, but not much

between 2007 and 2011. Coverage of post natal care was also increased visibly. The use of trained

provider for antenatal care, especially medical doctor, had increased, but use of trained midwife or

community health provider had not increase.

46

4.20 Delivery Care

Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur during delivery and the immediate post partum period. Table

4.20 shows the percentage distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the two years preceding the

survey, by type of personnel assisting with the delivery and place of delivery, 2006, 2007, 2009 and

2011.

Table 04.20: Percentage distribution of women aged 1549 with a birth in the two years

preceding the survey by type of personnel assisting during delivery and their

place of delivery, 2006,2007, 2009 and 2011.

Delivery care MICS 2006 BDHS 2007 MICS 2009 BDHS 2011

1. Assistance during delivery

Medical doctor 15.5 12.7 20.5 22.2

Nurse/midwife 4.6 5.2 3.8 8.9

Traditional birth attendant 66.0 10.8 58.4 11.2

Community health work 1.0 0.1 0.9 0.3

Relative/ friend 11.2 6.1 14.5 3.8

Other 1.0 0.0 1.8 52.9

Any skilled personnel 20.1 - 24.4 -

2. Place of delivery

Home delivery 82.2 85.0 - 71.0

Govt. health centre 7.4 7.1 - 11.8

Private(NGO) health centre 8.6 7.6 - 17.0

Others 1.8 0.3 - 0.2

Source: MICS, 2006, BBS, BDHS 2007 and 2011 Report, NIPORT

In 2006, any skilled personnel helped in delivery only 20.1 percent of births. Only 4.6 percent of the

births were delivered with the assistance of a nurse or midwife. In 2009, the assistance of skilled birth

attendance increased to 24.4%. Doctors assisted at the time of delivery of 20.5 percent of births, while a

traditional birth attendant delivered 58.4 percent of birth born in the two year period prior to the survey

interview, Relatives and friends were used in 14.5 percent of deliveries.

It is also apparent from the table that in 2011, 11.8% births were occurred in the Govt. health centers and

17.0% at the NGO health centers while 71.0% occurred in the home. Home delivery was 82.2% in 2006

which substantially reduced in 2011 (71.0%). Delivery at health facility, that is Govt. and NGO health

centers also increased over the period.

47

CHAPTER 5

Morbidity and Health Services

Morbidity is another term of illness. It is a very important index to know about the health status of the

individuals. Access to health care facilities is a basic need for women and men of the society. Morbidity

and health service related data obtained from different surveys have been presented in this chapter.

5.01 Population Suffered from Diseases

The distribution of population who suffered from diseases during the last 12 months by sex and residence

has been shown in table 5.01 along with past 10-year trend. The trend shows that even if there have been

significant improvements in various diseases like Gastric Ulcer, Chronic fever, Chronic dysentery, and

Eczema, it has actually increased in other diseases like Rheumatic fever, Blood pressure, Respiratory

diseases, Chronic heart disease, and Diabetes. Several diseases are more prominent among men rather

than women, like respiratory diseases, Injury/disability, and Diabetes. Whereas some others are more

prominent among women, like: Blood Pressure and Rheumatic Fever.

Table 05.01: Distribution of population suffered during last 12 months from chronic

diseases by sex and residence, 2000& 2010

Type of illness

Percent of population suffered

2000 2005 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Chronic fever 4.41 4.56 3.19 3.80 2.56 3.18

Injury/disability 3.43 4.64 2.23 5.32 2.98 5.00

Chronic heart disease 3.01 3.54 4.67 5.03 7.23 7.46

Asthma/Respiratory disease 6.97 9.66 6.96 10.10 7.70 10.22

Chronic dysentery 1.66 2.78 1.19 2.68 1.13 1.88

Gastric/Ulcer 27.13 29.85 26.04 27.10 24.23 23.77

Blood pressure 8.42 4.24 11.30 7.26 12.91 7.76

Rheumatism/Rheumatic fever 14.56 10.62 12.29 8.54 16.22 11.42

Eczema 1.75 2.01 2.63 2.25 1.60 1.58

Diabetes 2.26 3.94 3.21 4.13 4.29 6.70

Cancer - 0.41 0.22 0.53 0.29

Leprosy - 0.16 0.40 0.25 0.50

Paralysis - 1.22 2.25 1.93 2.56

Epilepsy - 0.56 0.41 0.34 0.53

Other 26.41 24.15 23.87 20.43 16.11 17.16

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2010, BBS

5.02 Average Duration of Ailment by Types of Disease

Average duration (in months) of ailment by sex for different diseases has been presented in table 5.02

along with past 10-years trend. It is observed from the table that, in 2010, at the national level average

duration of ailment for women was 77 months and for men it was 86 months for all types of disease.

There has been significant improvement (decrease in duration) in several diseases among women, like

Chronic fever, Chronic dysentery, and Gastric/Ulcer. However, though Chronic fever has also improved

for Men, the other two have actually deteriorated slightly for Men. One disease where the duration has

increased alarmingly is Eczema. Men have significantly higher duration in several diseases like:

Injury/Disability, Chronic dysentery, Gastric/Ulcer, and some others.

48

Table 05.02: Average duration of ailment by sex, residence and type of diseases suffered in

the last 12 months, 2005 and 2010

Type of ailment Average duration of ailment (months)

2000 2005 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Chronic fever 62 51 27 48 39 40

Injury /disability 68 64 41 43 61 83

Chronic heart disease 71 62 67 66 77 72

Asthma / Respiratory diseases 106 117 103 106 109 104

Chronic dysentery 89 84 52 93 58 96

Gastric / Ulcer 85 90 74 100 78 92

Blood pressure 75 73 68 68 78 74

Rheumatism/Rheumatic fever 75 95 82 94 74 84

Eczema 59 73 77 87 95 104

Diabetes 65 71 72 69 81 72

Cancer - - 42 14 58 57

Leprosy - - 140 78 80 133

Paralysis - - 49 90 86 110

Epilepsy - - 200 219 109 199

Others 70 77 66 81 67 81

Total 77 84 72 85 77 86

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2010, BBS

5.03 Method of Treatment

The ailing persons suffered from different types of diseases and received treatment from health care

service provider, such as, doctors, health workers, compounders, hekim, fakir, etc. The table 5.03 shows

the method of treatment adopted by the ailing persons for illness along with past 10 year trend. Most

people receive treatment from Pharmacy/Dispensary/Compounder, followed by Private Doctor, and

Govt. Doctor involved in private practice. Though this has remained the same since 2000, there has been

significant shift towards Govt. Doctor (Govt. Institution) whose percentage has increased from around

6.5% to around 9.5%. There has been a significant decreasing trend in Govt. Health Worker,

Homeopathic Doctor, and Kabiraj/Hekin/Ayurbed. Major disparity cannot be observed between the two

sex in this context, only reliance on Kabiraj/Hekim/Ayurbed is higher among men than women which

was the other way round previously.

49

Table 05.03: Percent of treatment recipient by sex, residence and type of treatment, 2005

and 2010

Type of treatment

Percent of treatment recipient

2000 2005 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Govt. Health Worker 4.08 3.54 0.97 1.20 2.43 2.38

NGO Health Worker 0.55 0.33 0.36 0.16 0.43 0.31

Homeopathic Doctor 5.37 4.37 5.22 4.21 3.68 3.18

Kabiraj/Hekim/Ayurbed 2.08 1.87 1.17 1.60 0.75 1.28

Peer/Fakir/Tactric/Baidya 0.26 0.41 0.12 0.24 0.32 0.40

Govt. Doctor (Govt.

Institution)

6.47 6.68 8.01 7.10 9.41 9.14

Govt. Doctor (Private Practice) 16.00 15.45 16.36 13.82 15.16 13.43

NGO Doctor 0.58 0.40 0.52 0.38 0.20 0.20

Private Doctor 23.42 24.85 24.23 24.49 24.54 24.37

Pharmacy/Dispensary/

Compounder

38.01 38.39 36.91 40.52 39.20 41.35

Family Treatment - - 0.72 0.63 0.87 0.89

Self Treatment - - 0.45 0.60 0.65 0.56

Others 3.20 3.70 4.95 5.05 2.37 2.50

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2005 &2010, BBS

5.04 Childhood Illness and Treatment

Three leading causes of morbidity among children in Bangladesh are acute respiratory infection, fever

and diarrhea. These three types of illness of the children have been presented in the following section.

Table 5.04.1 presents the prevalence of suspected pneumonia among the children aged 0-59 months who

were taken to a health care provider. Nationally 5.3% of <5 children were reported to have had

symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these children, 30.1 percent

were taken to an appropriate provider, with no observed sex difference. It is observed from the table

5.04.1 that the prevalence of pneumonia was slightly higher among boys (5.8%) than girls (4.9%). It is

apparent from the table that there is also urban rural variation. Urban children are twice as likely to

receive treatment by a health care provider as rural children.

Table 05.04.1: Prevalence of children aged 059 months with pneumonia and treatment

taken from a health care provider, 2006

Background characteristics Acute respiratory infection/ pneumonia Any appropriate provider

Age in months

00-11 8.5 34.6

12-23 6.8 31.5

24-35 5.1 32.7

36-47 3.8 23.5

48-59 3.2 20.8

Sex

Boys 5.8 30.0

Girls 4.9 30.1

Residence

Urban 4.7 44.2

Rural 5.6 25.9

Total 5.3 30.1

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, BBS

50

The following table 5.04.2 shows the prevalence of fever and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among

under five children and treatment taken from a health facility or medically trained provider.

Table 05.04.2:Prevalence of children <5 years with fever and ARI for whom treatment

sought from a health facility or medically trained provider by age, sex and

residence, 2004 and 2007.

Background

characteristics

2004 2007

Children

with fever

(%)

Children

with ARI

(%)

Taken to

health facility

or provider

(%)

Children

with fever

(%)

Children

with ARI

(%)

Taken to health

facility or

provider

(%)

Age in months

<6 40.9 28.3 26.5 38.3 16.2 30.0

6-11 47.3 29.5 27.9 48.7 19.6 22.1

12-23 49.0 24.9 23.4 43.8 15.3 33.1

24-35 41.4 20.0 18.9 39.6 13.4 31.0

36-47 35.1 15.7 8.9 31.4 10.0 30.9

48-59 31.4 14.9 16.2 32.3 8.7 17.6

Sex

Boys 40.8 22.0 23.3 38.6 13.3 29.8

Girls 39.3 19.6 16.8 37.9 12.8 26.3

Residence

Urban 40.7 19.3 35.4 36.3 9.9 46.8

Rural 39.9 21.1 16.8 38.7 13.9 24.6

Total 40.1 20.8 20.3 38.2 13.0 28.1

Source: Bangladesh Demographic & Health Survey – 2004 and 2007

It is evident from the table 5.04.2 that 40.1% percent children under five years had fever and 20.8% was

reported to have had symptoms of respiratory illness in the year 2004. ARI is slightly less common

among children over 24 months old than among younger children.

Use of health facility or a medically trained provider for treatment of ARI is low in Bangladesh. Only

20.3 % children were to be taken to a health facility/ trained provider when ill with ARI. Not only that,

but also there exists variation in boys and girls children. Boys children were more likely than girls to be

taken to a health facility trained provider when ill with ARI.

It is apparent from the table that there was also urban rural variation. Urban children were twice as likely

to receive treatment at a health facility or by a medically trained provider as rural children were.

The same situation was observed in the year 2007. Data resulted from the year 2007 survey show that 13

percent children under five years had symptoms of ARI and about three out of ten children with

symptoms of ARI were taken to a health facility.

Table 5.04.2 also shows that 40.1% children under five years had a fever in the year 2004 and 38.2% in

the year 2007. The incidence of fever is relatively higher among children 6-11 months in both the year

2004 and 2007.

Dehydration from diarrhea is another leading cause of child morbidity. Table 5.04.3 shows the

prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children and the measures that were taken to treat the children

from such illness.

51

Table 05.04.3: Percentage of children <5 years with diarrhea who were given oral rehydration

therapy (ORT) by sex and residence, 2007 and 2011

Background

characteristic

2007 2011

Children with

diarrhoea (%)

Treated with ORT

(%)

Children with

diarrhoea (%)

Treated with ORT

(%)

Age in month

<6 4.6 56.0 3.1 46.1

6-11 13.9 89.1 8.4 79.7

12-23 14.2 87.4 7.1 79.4

24-35 10.2 88.5 4.1 93.1

36-47 7.6 86.7 3.5 92.8

48-59 7.0 78.3 2.9 86.3

Sex

Boys 11.0 85.2 5.0 86.1

Girls 8.5 85.2 4.2 78.5

Residence

Urban 10.2 85.5 3.7 87.3

Rural 9.7 85.1 4.9 81.7

Total 9.8 85.2 4.6 82.7

Note: ORT includes solution prepared from oral re-hydration salt (ORS) packets

Source: Bangladesh Demographic & Health Survey-2007 and 2011, NIPORT

It is apparent from the table that 9.8 percent of children under-five were reported to have had

diarrhea in the two weeks period before the survey in 2007 and 4.6 percent of children under-five

had diarrhea in the year 2011. Diarrhea prevalence was highest at age 6-23 months (for both the year

2007 and 2011) a period during which solid foods were first introduced into the child’s diet.

Eighty five percent (85.2%) of children with diarrhea were given ORT, in the year 2007 and it was

82.7% in 2011. It is apparent that there had been no significant difference in the percentage of

children receiving ORT over the years between 2007 and 2011.

5.05 Sources of Medicine

The sources of medicine for the ailing patients have been presented in table 5.05 It is observed from

the table that most of the patients received their medicine from the pharmacy/ dispensary.

Table 05.05: Distribution of patients by their sources of getting medicine,2000, 2005 and

2010

Source of getting medicine 2000 2005 2010

Both Women Men Women Men

Government health centre 3.55 2.78 2.80 3.02 2.33

NGO health centre 0.52 0.68 0.60 0.37 0.33

Private health centre 0.83 0.49 0.74 0.56 0.45

Other service personal 0.97 1.00 1.15 3.80 3.94

Pharmacy/ dispensary 89.47 92.93 92.72 90.28 90.25

Other shops 1.99 0.67 0.67 0.83 1.02

Others 2.69 1.45 1.31 1.13 1.56

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2000, 2005 & 2010, BBS

52

The sources of medicine reported by facility for women and men were almost similar. At the national

level 2010 among the women, the highest 90.28% patients received their medicine from pharmacy/

dispensary followed by government health centre 3.02% and others 1.13%. Similarly, for men the highest

90.25% received their medicine from pharmacy/dispensary followed by government health centre 2.33%

and others 1.56%.

5.06 Average Days Required for Consulting Doctor for the First Time after Ailment

Average days required by the ailing persons to consult the doctor for the first time after ailment has been

presented in table 5.06 It is revealed from the table that, the sex variation in respect of time required for

consulting the doctor after ailment was not well differentiated.

Table 05.06: Average days required consulting doctor for the first time after ailment by sex

and residence, 2000, 2005 and 2010

Residence Both Women Men

2000

National 3.23 3.31 3.14

Rural 3.32 3.41 3.24

Urban 2.78 281 2.68

2005

National 3.01 2.77 3.24

Rural 3.03 2.79 3.28

Urban 2.94 2.68 3.14

2010

National 3.07 2.74 3.36

Rural 2.87 2.61 3.99

Urban 3.93 3.31 4.46

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey,2000, 2005, 2010, BBS

However, the women consulted doctors slightly earlier than men. The average days required consulting

doctors after ailment was 2.74 days for the women as against 3.36 days for the men. In rural-urban areas

same situation was observed. In the rural area, the average days required by women to consult a doctor

after ailment was 2.61 days compared to 3.99 days for men. In urban area, average days required for

consulting doctor after ailment was 3.31 days for women and 4.46 days for men.

5.07 Average Waiting Time

Average waiting time to get service/ treatment of health personnel has been presented in table 5.07. It

is apparent from the table that, at the national level, among the women, the highest waiting time to

get the service of the health personnel was accounted for govt. doctor in private practice (36.65

minutes) and govt. doctor in govt. institute (33.75 minutes) in the 2010. Among the men the highest

waiting time to get the service of the health personnel was accounted for NGO doctor (41.53

minutes) and govt. doctor in private practice (37.85 minutes). At the national level the lowest waiting

time was observed for compounder of pharmacy/ dispensary for both the sexes.

53

Table 05.07: Average waiting time (minutes) for getting the service / treatment personnel

by patients, sex and residence, 2000, 2005 and 2010

Type of service/ treatment personnel 2000 2005 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Govt. health worker 14.0 16.0 19.18 17.59 19.44 22.02

NGO health worker 12.0 18.0 24.49 10.03 12.33 11.06

Homeopathic doctor 11.0 11.0 11.21 14.16 18.43 15.10

Kabiraj/Hekim/Ayurbedic 14.0 11.0 11.60 12.74 22.83 16.42

Peer/Fakir/Tantric/Ojha/Baidya 8.0 15.0 15.72 14.18 28.55 17.43

Govt. doctor (Govt. institution) 22.0 26.0 30.64 31.03 33.75 33.13

Govt. doctor (private practice) 24.0 23.0 28.70 24.58 36.65 37.85

NGO doctor 12.0 20.0 27.52 22.50 21.25 41.53

Private doctor 14.0 13.0 16.05 16.35 19.26 21.68

Pharmacy/Dispensary/Compounder 7.0 9.0 8.49 8.43 10.20 9.87

Family treatment - - 20.45 14.02 8.43 6.37

Self treatment - - 4.82 2.76 6.29 1.25

Other 14.0 11.0 11.06 10.87 12.29 15.70

Total 13.0 14.0 15.94 14.68 19.37 19.34

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey-2000, 2010, BBS

5.08 Preference of Health Service Provider

The reasons for preference of a particular service for treatment have been presented in table 5.08. It is

evident from the table that at the national level, the main reason of selecting a particular service was

short distance for both women and men. In 2010 among the women as high as 32.36% preferred any

service for this reason followed by quality of treatment 30.40% and reasonable expenditure 20.70%.

Table 05.08: Patients preference of service/treatment by reasons, sex and residence, 2000,

2005 and 2010

Reasons of preference Percentage

2000 2005 2010

Both Women Men Women Men

Short distance 36.21 31.69 32.73 32.36 32.75

Reasonable expenditure 23.33 19.90 20.61 20.70 20.62

Doctor available easily 6.92 9.41 9.20 7.30 6.56

Female doctor available 0.44 0.47 0.16 0.65 0.04

Medical equipment available 0.54 0.75 0.57 0.56 0.55

Quality treatment available 19.76 25.59 24.74 30.40 30.94

Referred by other doctor 0.82 0.12 0.41 0.37 0.53

Suggested by friends /relatives 2.18 1.16 0.91 0.83 1.09

For good reputation 6.92 4.60 4.18 5.18 5.27

Other reasons 2.87 6.31 6.49 1.64 1.64

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2000, 2005 and 2010, BBS

54

Among the men, the highest 32.75% preferred any service for short distance followed by quality

of treatment 30.94% and reasonable expenditure 20.62%

5.09 Treatment Cost

Medical expenditure of the patients in the preceding 30 days has been presented in the table 5.09. It is

apparent from the table that at the national level per patient average medical expenditure was higher for

women than men.

Table 05.09: Average medical expenditure per patient (Tk) in the preceding 30 days by sex

and residence, 2000, 2005 and 2010

Item of expenditure Average expenditure per patient (Tk)

2000 2005 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Doctor’s visit 83 83 123 105 159 160

Hospital/ clinic fee 1145 1152 1333 918 2016 1440

Medicine cost 194 195 279 272 453 522

Test/ investigation fee 392 368 622 404 893 806

Transport cost 69 57 76 83 124 145

Tips for treatment 215 156 552 286 1695 283

Other expenses 132 94 173 110 250 265

Total 168 161 465 396 388 407

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2000, 2005 and 2010, BBS

In 2010 for the women it was Tk.388 as against Tk. 407 for men. It is also revealed from the table that,

average medical expenditure significantly increased over the period 2000 to 2010.In all levels, the

expenditure for hospital/clinic was the highest, followed by test investigation fee. But there exists

variation between women and men.

5.10 Reasons for Nontreatment

The reason for non-treatment of ailing patient has been presented in table 5.10. It is apparent from the

table that at the national level, the main reason of non-treatment was that the problem was not serious for

women and men.

Table 05.10: Reasons for nontreatment in the ailment suffered preceding 30 days by sex

2000, 2005 and 2010.

Reasons for non treatment 2000 2005 2010

Both Women Men Women Men

The problem was not serious 70.32 61.07 64.48 53.97 59.99

High expenditure of treatment 19.38 26.42 24.16 17.51 12.95

Long distance of treatment place 1.26 0.72 1.99 1.55 0.44

Fear of detection of serious disease 0.47 0.07 0.16 0.07 0.15

Fear of taking treatment 0.25 0.87 0.80 0.30 0.00

Non support from family 2.94 4.09 2.53 4.94 2.46

None was present to accompany 0.75 0.62 0.23 0.00 0.00

Trouble in going outside 0.50 1.23 0.86 2.20 2.25

Did not know where to go 0.31 0.16 0.22 0.23 0.62

Others 3.59 4.72 4.56 19.23 21.13

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2000, 2005 and 2010, BBS

55

There exists variation in the reasons for non-treatment between women and men in 2005. Among women

as high as 61.07% did not receive any treatment as the problem was not serious followed by high

expenditure of treatment 26.42% and non support from family 4.09%. Among the men for the same area

64.48% did not take any treatment, as the problem was not serious, followed by high cost of treatment

24.16% and non-support from family 2.53%. In 2010 among women, 53.97% did not receive any

treatment because they did not feel their problem so serious and among men, it was about 60%

5.11 Prevalence of Smoking

Tobacco use prevalence is one of the key indicators of tobacco control. There are two kinds of commonly

used tobacco products in Bangladesh i.e. smoking and smokeless tobacco products. Smoking tobacco

products in Bangladesh include manufacturing cigarettes, bidis, hand-rolled cigarettes, pipes, cigars,

water-pipes or hukkah and other smoked tobacco products. Smokeless tobacco products used include a

wide range: betel quid with zorda, zarda only or zarda with supari; betel quid with sada pata, pan masala

with tobacco, sada pata chewing and other smokeless tobacco products.

Table 05.11.1: Smoking rates by sex and residence, 1995 and 2009

Residence 1995 2009

Women Men Women Men

Rural 5.1 46.2 1.8 45.6

Urban 3.4 40.5 0.8 42.1

National 4.6 43.8 1.5 44.7

Source : Prevalence of Smoking in Bangladesh, 1995, and WHO| Global Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh, 2009

Table 5.11.1 provides smoking prevalence rates by sex, in 1995 and 2009. In case of both women and

men the smoking habits in rural area decreased from 5.1% in 1995 to 1.8% in 2009 and for men from

46.2% in 1995 to 45.6% in 2009. Prevalence rates of smoking for the women in both rural and urban

areas indicate significant change in reduction, which may have a positive impact on women’s health with

less affected from diseases caused for smoking tobacco.

Table 05.11.2: Percentage of adults 15 years and above by smoking status, residence & sex,

2009

Smoking status Total Urban Rural

Men Women Both Men Women Both Men Women Both

Current tobacco smoker 44.7 1.5 23.0 42.1 0.8 21.3 45.6 1.8 23.6

Daily smoker 40.7 1.3 20.9 38.0 0.7 19.2 41.6 1.6 21.5

Occasional smoker 4.0 0.2 2.1 4.1 0.1 2.1 4.0 0.2 2.1

Non smoker 55.3 98.5 77.0 57.9 99.2 78.7 54.4 98.2 76.4

Daily smoker formerly 8.4 1.0 4.7 8.9 0.5 4.7 8.3 1.1 4.7

Never daily smoker 46.8 97.5 72.3 49.0 98.7 74.0 46.1 97.1 71.7

Source : WHO| Global Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh, 2009

In the table 5.11.2 the prevalence of smoking tobacco is presented by smoking status. Men 40.7%

reported as a daily smoker while women reported 1.3%. The overall prevalence of current tobacco

smokers was 23.0%. It was 44.7% among men and 1.5 % among women.

56

Table 05.11.3: Percentage of adults 15 years and above by use of smokeless tobacco, by sex,

residence, 2009

Smoking status Total Urban Rural

Men Women Both Men Women Both Men Women Both

Current smokeless tobacco user 26.4 27.9 27.2 21.6 23.8 22.5 28.1 29.6 28.8

Daily user 20.7 26.6 23.7 15.8 21.3 18.6 22.5 28.5 25.5

Occasional user 5.6 1.3 3.5 5.8 2.1 3.9 5.6 1.1 3.3

Non smokeless tobacco user 73.6 72.1 72.8 78.4 76.6 77.5 71.9 70.4 71.2

Daily user formerly 1.8 1.0 1.4 2.2 0.9 1.5 1.7 1.0 1.4

Never daily user 71.8 71.1 71.4 76.2 75.8 76.0 70.2 69.4 69.8

Source : WHO| Global Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh, 2009

Table 5.11.3 shows the prevalence rates of smokeless tobacco use by sex and residence, urban and rural.

Current smokeless tobacco use was 27.2%. The smokeless tobacco use prevalence among women and

men was 27.9% and 26.4% respectively in 2009. The prevalence rates in rural population were higher

than in urban population (28.8% against 22.5%) ; 23.7% of adults 15 years and above were daily users

whereas 26.6% of women, used smokeless tobacco and men 20.7% used smokeless tobacco on a daily

basis. In the rural area women of daily user in the rural area reported 28.5% to use smokeless tobacco

higher compared to urban women, 21.3%.

57

CHAPTER 6

Disability

Disability is any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform an activity in the

manner or with range considered normal for a human being. Disability is increasingly seen as something

that affects most people in the population, to varying degrees and at different stages of their lives. It can

be measured along a continuum and estimates of its prevalence vary with the particular definition used.

The data on disability are not comprehensive and comparable. So lack of adequate data has led to neglect

the disability issues and inadequate development national plan and policies. A few data collected in

Bangladesh do not reflect the full extent of disability prevalence. In spite of the limitation the chapter

deals with disability data, especially crude disability, age-specific disability, disability by causes,

disability by types and child disability as available from surveys conducted by BBS.

6.01 Age Sex Distribution

Table 6.01.1 presents distribution of disabled population by age groups. The table shows that proportion

of disabled persons was highest for age group 65 and over, lowest in the age group 0-4 years for both

sexes, and male. Lowest percentage of disabled was found for females in the age group 25-29 years.

Table 6.01.1: Agesex distribution of disabled persons

Age group 1991 2004 2011

Women Men Women Men Women Men

All ages 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

00-04 4.08 5.86 4.75 4.15 3.62 3.89

05-09 9.84 9.71 9.56 8.12 7.48 8.70

10-14 9.46 10.19 8.66 9.77 8.34 9.35

15-19 6.60 5.44 8.63 9.66 6.96 7.32

20-24 6.54 6.60 6.14 5.96 6.66 6.62

25-29 6.22 5.44 5.36 5.44 6.33 6.64

30-49 16.90 21.5 18.8 23.17 22.70 22.23

50-59 8.48 10.53 9.16 10.28 10.08 10.24

60-64 6.93 3.78 6.65 5.80 6.63 6.23

65+ 24.94 17.95 22.28 17.66 21.20 18.80

Source: Population Census-1991, 2011 and Sample Census-2004

Disabled population was almost evenly distributed through the age groups except for three age groups 0-

4, 30-49 and 65+ ages.

6.02 Crude Disability

The data on crude disability per 1000 population by sex are shown in table 6.02.1 It is evident from the

table that, at the national level, among the women the crude disability per 1000 population was lower as

compared to men. It was 3.9 for the women and for the men it was 5.5 in 1991. The rates for women and

men were 6.7 and 9.9 respectively in the year 2004. In the year 2011, it was 13.0 for women and 15.2 for

men.

58

Table 06.02.1: Crude disability rate per1000 population by sex and residence, 1991, 2004 and

2011

Sex 1991 2004 2011

Women 3.9 6.7 13.0

Men 5.5 9.9 15.2

Both 4.7 7.9 14.1

Source: population census and sample census-2004, BBS

6.03 AgeSpecific Disability

Table 6.03 .1 shows the prevalence of disability per 1000 population by age for the year 1991, 2004

and 2011. It is observed from the table that the prevalence of disability rates increase with the

increase of age.

Table 06.03:1: Agespecific disability rate per 1000 population by sex, 1991, 2004 and 2011

Age group Both Women Men

1991

00-04 1.7 1.1 2.2

05-14 3.0 2.5 3.5

15-29 3.5 3.0 4.1

30-49 4.5 3.3 5.7

50-64 11.0 8.8 12.9

65& above 32.3 36.5 29.2

Total 4.7 3.9 5.5

2004

00-04 2.8 2.6 3.0

05-14 5.5 4.7 6.3

15-29 6.2 4.8 7.7

30-49 6.9 5.2 8.5

50-64 16.4 14.4 18.2

65& above 50.0 51.3 48.8

Total 7.9 6.7 9.1

2011

00-04 5.07 4.55 5.57

05-14 9.92 8.75 11.02

15-29 10.39 8.81 12.18

30-49 13.13 12.27 13.98

50-64 25.90 25.87 25.93

65& above 59.09 62.02 52.52

Total 14.09 12.98 15.19

Source: Population Census-1991, 2011 and Sample Census-2004

At the national level, the prevalence of disability in 2011 was the highest 59.09 per 1000 population of

age 65 & above. There exists variation in the age group and between the women and men. Women, age

less than 50 year the prevalence of disability was lower than that of men. However, at the age 65+ the

prevalence of disability of women was higher than that of men. It was 62.02 for the women and 52.52 for

the men.

59

6.04 Causes of Disability

Table 6.04.1 shows the percentage of disability by causes and by sex. It is observed from the table that,

by born is the main cause of disability, this is followed by illness.

Table 06.04.1: Percentage distribution of disability by causes and sex, 20022010

Causes of

disability

2002 2007 2010

Both sex Women Men Women Men

By born 44.6 38.63 41.66 44.05 46.52

Accident 9.8 7.41 12.23 8.45 12.99

Illness 29.8 29.45 28.65 26.72 26.76

Old age 10.6 17.32 11.44 16.09 9.82

Others 5.1 7.19 6.03 4.69 3.91

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Source: SVRS,2008, 2007, 2010, BBS

In 2010, at the national level, for the women, the highest percentage of disability was by born 44.05%

followed by illness 26.72% and old age 16.09%. The same pattern of causes was followed for the men

except for some minor variations. For the men, the highest disability 46.52% was by born followed by

illness 26.76% and accident 12.99%.

6.05 Types of Disability

The proportion of disabilities by types and sex is shown in table 6.05.1 Types of disability for both

women and men has been classified as blindness, night blindness, hearing of deaf/dump , mentally

handicapped, leprosy, cripple, worthless, leprosy (white skin), goiter, memory impairments and others

(paralysis, leucoderma etc.).

Table 06.05.1: Proportion of disability (%) by type and sex in 20022010

Types of disability 2002 2007 2010

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Blindness 11.61 8.82 9.1 7.9 8.47 8.05

Night blindness 4.36 5.15 7.2 5.3 5.19 4.16

Deaf /Dumb 24.83 22.01 17.8 16.7 17.37 15.54

Mentally retarded 12.97 12.10 12.4 12.0 13.12 12.68

Leprosy 1.14 1.03 0.7 0.8 3.10 2.55

Cripple 18.68 27.86 18.3 25.9 18.05 26.61

Worthless 5.26 6.71 5.3 5.2 5.31 5.44

Dhabal(White Skin) 1.37 1.57 2.4 1.9 2.30 1.65

Goiter 4.86 1.49 2.4 0.7 2.68 1.30

Short in Memory 8.66 6.07 9.7 8.5 11.43 8.91

Others 6.25 7.19 14.7 15.1 15.28 14.77

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Source: Sample Vital Registration System, 2002, 2007, 2010,BBS

It is evident from the table that the men cripple (26.61%) was the highest proportion in the year 2010.

Among the cripples, men were more than women (18.05%) followed by deaf/dumb (17.37%) and

mentally retarded 13.12%

60

6.06 Economic Participation

Table 06.06.1: Crude activity rate of all population and disabled population, 1991, 2004 and

2011

Year All population Disabled population

Total women Men Total women Men

1991 28.8 4.4 51.9 26.3 6.3 39.6

2004 27.6 4.0 50.4 26.3 4.0 41.9

2011 30.1 6.0 54.2 26.2 4.6 44.6

Source: Population Census-1991, 2011 and Sample Census-2004

Crude activity rate measures the relative number of persons who were economically active. Table 6.06.1

provides the comparative picture of crude activity rate for the disabled population for 1991, 2004 and

2011.

It is observed that crude activity rate of disabled population was considerably lower as compared to all

population, for both sexes and males whereas the rate is found higher for female disabled. It is seen in the

table the crude activity rate for disabled persons has decreased in 2004 than that of 1991.

Table 6.06.2: Refined activity rate of disabled and all population by sex, 1991, 2004 and 2011

Year All population Disabled population

Total women Men Total women Men

1991 28.8 4.4 51.9 26.3 6.3 39.6

2004 27.6 4.0 50.4 26.3 4.0 41.9

2011 39.8 7.8 70.8 29.7 5.2 51.0

Source: Population Census-1991, 2011 and Sample Census-2004

The refined activity rate is the ratio of the economically active population to the population aged 10 years

and above. The refined activity rates of all population and disabled population of 1991, 2004 and 2011

are presented in table 6.06.2. It may be observed that refined activity rate was lower for disabled

population than that of total population, and the refined activity rate for disabled women was much lower

compared to that of men. The table shows that the refined activity rate for men has been increasing.

6.07 Child Disability

One of the goals for the children is to protect children against abuse, exploitation and violence including

the elimination of discrimination against children with disabilities. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

(conducted by BBS) collected data on children aged 2-9 years to assess the incidence of

disability/impairments, such as, sitting, walking and standing delay, stiffness of arms, sight impairment,

deafness and difficulties with speech, hearing and problem of understanding instructions, mentally

retarded, backward and slow.

Table 6.07.1 shows the percentage of children 2-9 years of age with disability reported by their mother or

caretaker according to the type of disability by sex and residence.

61

Table 06.07.1: Percentage of children aged 29 years with disability by types, sex and

residence, 2006

Sex/

residence

Delay in

sitting standing

or walking

Difficulty seeing,

either in the

daytime or at

night

Appears to

have

difficulty

hearing

No

understanding

of instructions

Difficulty in walking

moving arms, weakness

or stiffness

Girls 6.6 0.7 2.1 1.7 2.6

Boys 8.0 1.0 2.1 1.9 2.9

Rural 7.4 0.9 2.2 1.8 2.9

Urban 6.9 0.8 1.7 1.6 2.4

Total 7.3 0.9 2.1 1.8 2.8

Sex/

residence

Have fits,

become rigid,

lose

consciousness

Not learning to

do things like

other children

his/her age

Not

speaking/cannot

be understood

in words

Appears

mentally

backward, dull,

or slow

Percentage of children

2-9 years of age with at

least one reported

disability

Girls 4.2 1.6 1.7 1.5 16.2

Boys 5.7 1.9 2.1 1.7 18.7

Rural 4.8 1.8 2.0 1.6 17.7

Urban 5.5 1.4 1.7 1.5 17.1

Total 5.0 1.7 1.9 1.6 17.5

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006, BBS

It is observed from the table that 17.5 percent of children 2-9 years of age had one or more reported

disabilities. There exists variation between girls and boys. Among the girls, the incidence rate of

disability was lower than that of boys. It was 16.2% for girls and 18.7% for boys. But there is a slight

variation in the rural and urban areas.

6.08 Child Injury

According to the findings of 2005 child injury survey, about a million children are seriously hurt from

injuries every year- two children every minute. Of them 36 a day become disabled. The following table

6.08.1 shows the percent of children younger than 18 years suffered some form of injury by sex and

residence .It is observed from the table that 6.5 percent of children <18 years suffered from some sort of

injury. Of them, fallen children was accounted for the highest rate at 2.3 percent.

Table 6.08.1: Percentage of children <18 years by types of injury by sex and residence, 2006

Sex and

residence

Type of injury

Injured aged

<18 years

Fallen Burn Animal/

Snake/ Insect

Road

accident

Drowning Poisoning/Acid

victim & others

Girls 2.0 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.5

Boys 4.7 1.7 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.5 1.3

Rural 6.6 2.5 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.8 1.6

Urban 6.4 2.0 0.6 0.2 1.4 0.5 2.0

Total 6.5 2.3 0.6 0.2 1.1 0.7 1.7

There exists variation between girls and boys. Among the girls, the rate of injury was lower than that of

boys. The rate of injury for boys was 4.7% and 2.0% was for the girls. There was no significant variation

in rural and urban areas. Among the children total incidence of injury occurred 6.5%

62

63

CHAPTER 7

Economic Participation and Gender

This chapter provides the labor force data in Bangladesh. Total labour force comprises aged 15 years

and older people who are economically active population. All people who supply labour for the

production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes employed, underemployed, selfemployed

and unemployed, who are looking for gainful job/work. They may also be classified as

skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour force. Economically active population below age 15 termed as

child labour, is excluded from the labour force. Labour force is the key instrument to run the wheel of

economy. To run and strengthen the economy of this country it is inevitable to formulate effective plans

and programs based on adequate and quality data on labour force.

The chapter focuses particularly on labour force participation of women compared to men in the

economy. Sex disaggregated data on labor force have been presented in tables for different years viz (i)

Labour force aged 15+; (ii) annual average labour force growth rate; (iii) crude and refined activity rate;

(iv) trends in age-specific labour force participation; (v) working age population by activity status, broad

economic category engaged in household with level of education etc.; (vi) employed person by formal

and informal sector; (vii) trends in the distribution of employed women 15 years & over by major

occupation, establishment, major industry etc. Besides data on weekly hours worked, annual growth

rate, overseas employment, salary of worker, average wage rate, average daily wage rate, employment

rate of population etc.

7.01 Size of Labour Force

Population aged 15 years and over by sex and residence is presented in table 7.01. It is observed

from the table that at the national level the men labour force had increased from 30.6 million in 1996

to 39.5 million in 2010 while women labour force increased from 5.4 million to 17.2 million in the

same period.

Table 07.01: Labour force aged 15 years and over by sex and residence, 19952010

(Million)

Period National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1995-96 5.4 30.6 1.6 6.7 3.8 23.9

1999-2000 8.6 32.2 2.2 7.1 6.4 25.1

2002-2003 10.3 36.0 2.7 8.6 7.6 27.4

2005-2006 12.1 37.3 2.8 8.9 9.3 28.4

2010 17.2 39.5 4.0 9.3 13.2 30.2

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2010, BBS

64

Labour force aged 15 years and over by

gender and residence, 1995-2010

5.4 8.6 10.3 12.1

17.2

30.6 32.2

36 37.3 39.5

0

10

20

30

40

50

1995-96 LFS 1999-2000

LFS

2002-03

LFS

2005-06

LFS

2010-LFS

Women Men

In urban area the men labour force had increased from 6.7 million in 1996 to 9.3 million in 2010. On the

other hand, women labour force increased from 1.6 million to 4.0 million. In rural area men labour force

had increased from 23.9 million in 1996 to 30.2 million in 2010. While for women it was respectively 3.8

million and 13.2 million. It is important to note that the participation of the women labour force had

increased significantly both in urban and rural areas.

7.02 Labour Force Growth Rate

The annual average growth rate of labour force is shown in table 7.02. It is seen from the table that at

national level, the annual labour force growth rate for women stood at 6.5 percent for the period of

2002-2003. It is notable that growth rate of women labour force was much higher than that of men

labour force.

Table 07.02: Annual average labour force growth rate by sex and residence, 200203 and

200506 to 2010

Source: Labour Force Survey 2002-03, 2005-06, and 2010, BBS

Period and source Annual compound growth rate (%)

Bangladesh Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2002-03 6.5 3.8 7.6 6.7 6.2 2.9

2005-06 5.5 1.2 2.1 1.0 6.6 1.3

2010 8.7 1.4 8.5 1.1 8.7 1.5

65

The annual growth rate of women was found 8.69 percent as against 1.40 percent for men at national

level for the period 2005-2006 to 2010.The growth rates of labour force in rural area for women

population were to some extent lower than that of in the urban area. The urban women growth rate was

8.52 percent compared to 1.08 percent for men. On the other hand, rural women growth rate was 8.74

percent as against 1.50 percent of men. Labour force growth rates of women for all the years 2002-03,

2005-06 and 2010 were higher than men at national, rural and urban areas. Employment related

international migration by men is one of the causes of lower growth of male labour force.

7.03 Crude Activity Rate

It is observed that crude activity rate at the national, urban and rural level increased in 2010 for both men

and women compared to that in 2005-06 (Table-7.03).

Table 07.03: Crude activity rates by sex and residence, 200506 and 2010

Residence Crude activity rate (%)

LFS 2005-2006 LFS 2010

Women Men Women Men

Bangladesh 18.0 53.3 23.3 52.5

Urban 17.9 54.2 23.6 54.2

Rural 18.1 53.0 23.3 52.0

The crude activity rates for women were lower than those of men, but have increased for women over

time while remaining the same for men.

7.04 Refined Activity Rate

Table 07.04: Refined activity rate by sex and residence, 200506 and 2010

Residence Women Men Women Men

2005-2006 2010

Bangladesh 29.2 86.8 36.0 82.5

Urban 27.4 83.2 34.5 80.2

Rural 29.8 88.0 36.4 83.3

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2010, BBS

66

In table 7.04, refined activity rates of the population are presented. The refined activity rate has increased

for women in 2010 compared to 2005-06, but for men decreased.

It is important to note that, refined activity rate for men reduced in 2010 as against 2005-06. It was

happening due to active people going abroad for jobs. On the other hand, refined activity rate for women

increased substantially in the rural areas, it was 29.8% in 2005-06 and increased to 36.4% in 2010.

7.05 AgeSpecific Labour Force Participation Rate

Trends in age-specific labour force participation rate by age and sex, 2002-2010 are displayed in table-

7.05. Participation rates are higher for men compared to women at all ages. It is observed from the table

that participation rate of women and men increased with age, but declined after age 50 for women and

after age 55 years for men.

Table 07.05: Trends in agespecific labour force participation rate by sex, 20002010

Age

group

Women Men

2002-2003 2005-2006 2010 2002-2003 2005-2006 2010

15-19 38.2 13.8 29.4 58.9 62.9 48.4

20-24 26.7 29.0 41.0 84.9 80.4 75.9

25-29 27.5 33.7 44.7 97.7 95.3 92.2

30-34 27.2 34.9 46.6 99.7 98.7 97.3

35-39 28.1 34.9 47.7 99.8 98.8 98.3

40-44 25.6 35.1 46.2 99.7 97.7 98.1

45-49 22.6 32.6 47.6 99.5 97.8 97.4

50-54 19.9 31.1 10.3 99.2 95.4 94.1

55-59 17.2 27.7 11.2 97.3 92.4 88.5

60-64 13.4 22.6 6.6 87.8 82.7 77.2

65+ 8.7 14.8 8.3 66.1 59.3 57.9

Source: LFS 2002-2003, 2005-2006, 2010 BBS

The sex differentials in participation rate by age are well pronounced. For the women in 2010 the highest

participation rate was 47.7% for the age group of 35-39, whereas for the men the highest participation

rate was 98.3 in the same age group. Participation rate for men ranges from 98.3 to 48.4 compared to

women 47.7 to 6.6 Participation rates increasing sharply for men from age group 15-19 and peaked in

age group 35-39.

7.06 Working Age Population by Activity Status

The working-age population is defined as persons aged 15 years and older, although this varies slightly

from economy to economy. The ILO standard for the lower age limit is, in fact, 15 years.

Table 7.06 highlights working age population 15 years and over by activity status, sex and residence. It is

observed from the data that percentage distribution of activity status for the women at the national, urban

and rural level were almost same. At the national level, 75.2% women were not at work in economic

activity, whereas, 24.7% women were at work in economic activity. For men percentage distribution of

activity status at national level 83.1% was at work in economic activity, 16.3% were not in economic

activity. There exists variation by sex between the activity statuses.

67

Table 07.06: Working age population 15 years and over by activity status, sex and

residence,200203

Activity status National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

At work in economic activity 24.7 83.1 25.6 80.6 24.4 83.9

Working but not at work 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.6

Not at work in economic activity 75.2 16.3 74.3 18.8 75.5 15.4

Source: Labour Force Survey-2002-03, BBS

7.07 Working Age Population (15+ yrs) by Broad Economic Category

In table 7.07, it is revealed from the data that 82.5% men were in labour force at national level in 2010.

Whereas for women 36.0%were in labour force and 64.0% were not engaged in labour force. In the rural

area, 36.4% working age women were in labour force and the rest 63.6% were not engaged in labour

force. For men, 83.3% were engaged in labour force whereas 16.7% were not engaged in labour force.

Table 07.07: Working age population by broad economic category by sex and residence,

20052006 and 2010

Economic category Bangladesh Urban Rural

Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

2005-06 Number (000)

Population (age 15+) 84586 43006 41580 21075 10683 10392 63511 32323 31188

Total labour force 49461 37330 12131 11730 8884 2846 37731 28447 9285

Employed 47357 36080 11277 11224 8569 2656 36132 27511 8621

Unemployed 2104 1250 854 505 315 190 1599 935 664

Not in labor force 35125 5876 29449 9345 1800 7545 25780 3876 21904

Household work 24148 352 23796 5860 141 5719 18288 211 18077

Student 6548 3709 2838 2189 1146 1042 4359 2563 1796

Others 4429 1614 2815 1296 512 784 3133 1102 2031

Percent

Total labour force 58.5 86.8 29.2 55.7 83.2 27.4 59.4 88.0 29.8

Employed 95.8 96.7 93.0 95.7 96.5 93.3 95.8 96.7 92.9

Unemployed 4.2 3.3 7.0 4.3 3.5 6.7 4.2 3.3 7.1

Not in labor force 41.5 13.2 7.8 44.3 16.8 72.6 40.6 12.2 70.2

Household work 68.8 6.2 80.8 62.7 7.8 75.8 70.9 5.5 82.5

Student 18.6 65.4 9.6 23.4 63.7 13.8 16.9 66.1 8.2

Others 12.6 28.4 9.6 13.9 28.5 10.4 12.2 28.4 9.3

68

Economic category Bangladesh Urban Rural

Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Wome

n

2010 Number (000)

Population (age 15+) 95584 47847 47737 23165 11572 11593 7241

9

36275 36144

Total labour force 56651 39477 17174 13278 9276 4002 4337

3

30201 13172

Employed 54084 37882 16202 12421 8752 3669 4166

3

29130 12533

Unemployed 2567 1595 972 858 324 334 1710 1071 639

Not in labour force 38933 8370 30563 9887 2246 9591 2904

6

6074 22972

Household work 26241 1163 25078 6298 239 6059 1995

5

923 19032

Student 6770 4570 2200 2333 1318 1015 5315 3256 2059

Others 5922 2637 3285 1256 739 517 3776 1895 1881

Percent

Total labour force 59.3 82.5 36.0 57.3 80.2 34.5 60.0 83.3 36.4

Employed 95.5 96.0 94.3 93.5 94.4 91.7 96.1 96.5 95.2

Unemployed 4.5 4.0 5.7 6.5 5.6 8.3 3.9 3.5 4.8

Not in labour force 40.7 17.5 64.0 42.7 19.8 65.5 40.0 16.7 63.6

Household work 67.4 13.9 81.7 63.7 10.4 79.5 68.7 15.2 82.5

Student 19.7 54.6 10.3 23.6 57.4 13.6 18.3 53.6 9.2

Others 12.9 31.5 8.0 12.7 32.2 6.9 13.0 31.2 8.3

Source: Labour Force Survey-2010, BBS

In the urban area in 2010, 34.5 percent women were in the labour force and 65.5% were outside the

purview of the labour force. About ninety-two percent women were employed and the rest were

unemployed. For men, 80.2% were engaged in labour force and the rest 19.8% were outside the labour

force.

7.08 Working Age Population Engaged in Household Work

It is seen from the table7.08, that those who were outside the labour force, a large portion of them were

engaged in household work. At the national level in 2010, 67.4% of the total population who were

outside the purview of the labour force was engaged in household. It was higher than 35.1% in 2002-03

at national level of the total population who were not in the labour force but worked in the household. It

is important to note that the working age population who were engaged in household work for both men

and women in urban and rural areas were higher in 2010 than 2002-03.

Table 07.08: Working age population 15 years and over engaged in household work by sex

and residence, 200203, 200506 and 2010

(In percentage)

Sex 2002-03 2005-06 2010

Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural

Both 35.1 21.5 21.2 68.8 62.7 70.9 67.4 63.7 68.7

Women 65.7 40.8 39.8 80.6 75.8 82.5 81.7 79.5 82.5

Men 5.7 3.3 3.5 6.2 7.8 5.5 13.9 10.4 15.2

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2005-06 and 2010, BBS

69

7.09 Labour Force by Level of Education

Table 7.09 provides labour force aged 15 years and over by level of education, sex and residence. It is

observed from the table that at national level 40.6% women labour force in 2010 have no educations at

all. Same scenario is also found for men (39.9 percent illiterate). The participation of women having no

schooling was 29.3% in urban area compared to 44.1% in the rural area. For men it was 26.1% in the

urban area and 44.1% in the rural area.

Table 07.09: Labour force participation aged 15 years and over by level of education, sex

and residence, 200003, 200506 and 2010

(In percentage)

Level of education National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-2006

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

No education 50.9 37.1 39.8 25.0 54.3 40.9

Class 1-V 22.9 24.1 21.3 21.6 23.4 24.9

Class VI-V111 10.7 13.3 10.7 12.8 10.7 13.4

Class1X-X 5.5 8.2 5.6 7.9 5.4 8.3

S.S.C/Equivalent 4.6 7.5 7.8 10.2 3.7 6.7

HSC/Equivalent 2.3 4.2 5.4 7.9 1.4 3.1

Degree /Equivalent 1.8 3.3 4.8 7.9 0.9 1.9

Master’s Equivalent 1.0 1.7 3.5 5.3 0.2 0.6

Engineering/Medical 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.1

Technical/Vocational 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1

Others 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.1

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

No education 40.6 39.9 29.3 26.1 44.1 44.1

Class i-v 22.7 22.9 23.9 22.0 22.3 23.2

Class vi-viii 15.3 13.8 16.3 16.5 15.0 13.0

Class ix-x 10.5 8.3 10.7 9.1 10.5 8.0

SSC/equivalent 5.6 6.5 7.9 8.8 4.8 5.8

HSC/equivalent 3.0 4.0 6.0 6.9 2.1 3.1

Bachelor /equivalent 1.2 2.5 2.8 5.4 0.7 1.6

Master degree/equivalent 0.8 1.7 2.4 4.1 0.3 1.0

Medical/engineering 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.1

Technical/vocational 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1

Others 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2005-06 and 2010, BBS

At the national level in 2010, 0.1% women and 0.2% men has professional education such as engineering

and /or medical degrees. For urban area the percentage of women and men labour force having

engineering and /or medical degree were 0.4% and 0.8% respectively. On the other hand, in rural area the

percentage of labour force having such professional degree was 0.1% for both women and men.

Women having SSC or equivalent degree were 5.6% compared to 6.54% for men, at the national level.

At the urban area, SSC or equivalent degree were 7.9% for women and 8.8% for men. The corresponding

figure for rural area was 4.8% and 5.8% respectively.

70

It is interesting to note that, percentage of labour force having masters/equivalent educational

qualification were 0.8% for women and 1.7% for men in the national level. For women and men it was

2.4% and 4.1% respectively in the urban area and for rural area it was 0.3% for women and 1.0% for

men. Variation by sex in the labour force participation in respect of higher education is also discernible.

7.10 Employment by Sector

Employed persons 15 years and over by formal and informal sectors, sex and residence have been

provided in table 7.10 in 2010. It is seen from the table that at aggregate level, women labour force in

informal sector was 92.3% and in formal sector it was 7.7%. On the other hand, for men labour force

informal and formal sector were 85.5% and 14.5% respectively. Almost the same pattern was observed in

urban and rural areas.

Table 07.10: Employed persons 15 years and over by sector of employment, sex and

residence, 200506 and 2010

(In percentage)

Sector Bangladesh Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-06

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Formal sector 14.31 23.82 31.08 33.64 9.15 20.76

Informal sector 85.69 76.18 68.92 66.35 90.85 79.24

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Formal sector 7.7 14.5 19.0 27.8 4.4 10.7

Informal sector 92.3 85.5 81.0 72.2 95.6 89.3

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2010, BBS

In urban areas, 81.0% women were in informal sector and 19.0% were engaged in formal sector. 72.2%

men were in informal sector and 27.8% were in formal sector. In the rural area, 95.6% women were in

informal sector and 4.4% were in formal sector. For men 89.3% were in informal sector and 10.7%

were engaged in formal sector.

It is observed from the table 7.10.1 that at the national level, women employed population had increased

from 7.9 million in 1999 to 16.2 million in 2010 while men employed population increased from 31.1

million to 37.9 million in the same period

71

Table 07.10.1: Employed population aged 15 years and over by sex and residence, 19992010

(Million)

Period & source National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1999-2000 7.9 31.1 2.0 6.7 5.9 24.4

2002-2003 9.8 34.5 2.5 8.3 7.3 26.3

2005-2006 11.3 36.1 2.7 8.6 8.6 27.5

2010 16.2 37.9 3.6 8.8 12.6 29.1

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2010, BBS

In the urban area, men employed population had increased from 8.3 million in 2002 to 8.8 million in

2010. On the other hand, women labour force increased from 2.5 million to 3.6 million. In rural area men

labour force had increased from 26.3 million in 2002 to 29.1 million in 2010. While for women it was

respectively 7.3 million and 12.6 million. It is important to note that the participation of the women in

employment had increased significantly both in urban and rural areas.

7.11 Employment by Major Occupation

Trends and distribution of employed women by major occupations have been described in table 7.11. It is

observed from table that in 1990-91, the ‘service workers’ were major occupation having 17.5 percent

employed women which was reduced to 8.0% in 2010. Where ‘agriculture’, ‘forestry’ and ‘fisheries’

accounted for 47.6% in 1990-91 and reached to 64.8% in 2010. ‘Production’ and ‘Transport labours’

held, the 2nd higher position for all the years. It varied from 21.8% to 27.8% between the years 1990-91

and 1995-96

Table 07.11: Distribution of employed women 15 years and over by major occupation 1991

2010

Major occupation 1990-91 1995-96 1999-

2000

2002-03 2005-06 2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0

Professional technical 7.5 7.2 4.4 4.1 4.38 3.2

Administrative, Managerial 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.19 0.6

Clerical workers 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.9 1.27 0.6

Sales workers 2.8 5.9 5.5 2.9 2.08 8.1

Service workers 17.5 15.6 17.5 9.7 7.67 8.0

Agriculture, Forestry &

Fisheries

47.6 41.7 46.3 58.6 68.33 64.8

Production, Transport

labours

21.8 27.8 24.2 22.8 16.06 14.0

Not Adequately defined/

others

0.9 - - - 0.01 0.7

Source: Labour Force Survey 2002-03, 2005-06, 2010 BBS

72

7.12 Employment by Major Occupation and Residence

It is observed from the table 7.12 that in 2010 at the national level, among women 64.8% were engaged

in agriculture forestry and fisheries followed by production, transport labourers 14.0% and services

workers 8.1%. For men 40.1% were agriculture, forestry fisheries occupation followed by production

transport workers 26.7% and sales workers 18.1%.

During the period of 2002-03, 58.6% of women were engaged in primary sector (agriculture, forestry and

fisheries) followed by production and transport labourers were 22.8% and lastly services workers were

9.7% for women. For men, 49.3% were in agriculture, forestry and fisheries occupation followed by

production, transport labourers (21.6%) and sales workers (18.2%).

Table 07.12: Employed persons 15 years and over by occupation, sex and residence, 2002

03, 200506 and 2010

(In percentage)

Major occupation Bangladesh Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2002-03

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Professional, technical 4.1 3.8 8.0 6.0 2.8 3.2

Administrative, managerial 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.1

Clarical worker 1.9 3.9 3.8 8.2 1.2 2.5

Sales worker 2.9 18.2 3.8 28.0 2.6 15.1

Service worker 9.7 3.0 11.7 5.2 9.0 2.3

Agriculture, forestry, fisheries 58.6 49.3 42.6 21.8 64.1 57.9

Production, transport labourer 22.8 21.6 30.0 30.0 20.3 19.0

2005-06

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Professional, technical 4.4 4.8 10.8 9.1 2.4 3.5

Administrative, managerial 0.2 0.6 0.3 1.3 0.2 0.3

Clerical worker 1.3 2.4 2.8 5.8 0.8 1.4

Services workers 7.7 5.2 16.2 8.7 5.0 4.2

Sales worker 2.1 17.9 3.2 26.8 1.7 15.2

Agri, forestry, fisheries

Workers

68.3 42.2 34.4 9.7 78.8 52.3

Production, transport laborers 16.1 26.7 32.3 38.4 11.1 23.0

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Professional, technical 3.2 4.9 5.8 8.1 2.4 4.1

Administrative, managerial 0.6 1.6 0.7 3.3 0.6 1.1

Clerical worker 0.6 2.4 1.3 4.3 0.4 1.8

Services worker 8.1 4.5 10.5 4.3 7.4 4.5

Sales worker 8.0 18.1 4.4 22.6 9.0 16.8

Agriculture. forestry, fisheries 64.8 40.1 48.9 13.5 69.5 48.1

Production, transport laborer 14.0 26.7 26.5 40.2 10.4 22.7

Others 0.7 2.5 2.0 4.4 0.4 2.0

Source: Report on LFS, 2002-2003 and 2005-2006,2010, BBS

73

In urban area for the period of 2010, 48.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry and fisheries followed

by production, transport labourers 26.5% and services workers 10.5% for women. On the other hand, for

men 40.2% were in production, transport labourers occupation followed by sales workers 22.6% and

agriculture, forestry and fisheries 13.5%. In rural area 69.5% of women were engaged in agriculture,

forestry and fisheries followed by production, transport labourers 10.4%, sales workers 9.0% and

services workers 7.4%. For men, 48.1% were in agriculture, forestry and fisheries followed by

production transport labourers 22.7%, and sales worker 16.8%. On the other hand, in 2002-03, 42.6%

were engaged in agriculture, forestry and fisheries followed by production, transport labourers 30.0% and

services workers 11.7% for women in urban areas.

In rural area, 64.1% were in agriculture, forestry and fisheries followed by production, transport

labourers (20.3%) and service workers (9.0%) for women, as against 57.9% in agriculture followed by

production, transport labourers 19.0% and sales workers 15.1% for men.

7.13 Employed Persons by Employment Status

Table 7.13 shows the employment status by sex and residence. It is observed from the table that the

highest 60.1% employed women were unpaid family workers followed by self-employed (15.9%) and

regular paid employee (11.7%) in 2005-06. For men, 50.0% were engaged in self-employment category

followed by regular paid employee 14.6% and day labourers (agri) 13.3% at national level.

In 2010, 56.3% were engaged as unpaid family workers followed self employed in agriculture (15.7%)

followed by day labourer (non-agriculture) 2.8% at national level.

Table 07.13: Distribution of employed person 15 years and over by employment status, sex

and residence, 200506 and 2010

Status of employment National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-06

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Regular paid employee 11.7 14.6 33.3 30.5 5.0 9.6

Employer 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.3

Self Employed 15.9 50.0 29.9 45.3 11.6 51.5

Day labour (Agriculture) 2.5 13.3 0.7 2.7 3.0 16.6

Unpaid family worker 60.1 9.7 22.3 5.6 71.8 11.0

Domestic worker/ Maid servant 2.3 0.2 3.6 0.1 2.0 0.2

Paid/ Unpaid apprentice 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.5

Day labour (Non-agriculture) 4.0 8.6 6.1 11.3 3.3 7.7

Irregular paid worker 1.5 2.2 1.5 2.0 1.3 2.7

Others 1.7 0.6 2.4 0.7 1.4 0.6

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Regular paid employee 8.9 17.0 24.0 32.9 4.5 12.2

Employer 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2

Self Employed(agriculture) 15.7 25.8 6.2 6.5 18.5 31.6

Self Employed(non-agriculture) 9.4 21.7 8.4 27.3 9.7 20.0

Unpaid family worker 56.3 7.1 48.2 4.0 58.6 8.0

Irregular paid worker 1.8 3.1 4.4 6.3 1.1 2.2

Day labour/(Agriculture) 2.5 14.2 0.9 4.8 2.9 17.1

Day labour (Non-agriculture) 2.8 11.6 4.6 18.5 2.2 9.5

Servant 2.5 0.1 3.2 0.2 2.3 0.1

Source: Labour Force Survey 2010, BBS

74

Some urban-rural variation in respect of employment status is noticeable in 2005-06. In the urban areas,

the highest 33.34% women were regular paid employees followed by 29.86% self-employed and 22.31%

unpaid family workers. Among men, 45.28%, were self-employed followed by 30.54% regular paid

employees and 11.30% day labourers (non- agriculture).

On the contrary, in the rural area the highest 71.77% women were engaged in unpaid family worker

followed by 11.55% self employed and 5.01% were regular paid employee. There exists an urban-rural

variation in employment by sex.

7.14 Employment by Broad Economic Sector

Employed persons 15 years and over by sex and broad economic sectors, 2005-06 and 2010 have been

shown in table 7.14. From the table it is observed that of the total employed women in 2010, the highest

64.84% were engaged in agriculture sector followed by 35.2% were in non-agriculture and 21.9% were

in service sector, 11.8% were engaged in manufacturing sector and the rest were in other industries. On

the other hand, among men as high as 60.7% were engaged in non-agriculture followed by 41.1% were

service sector and 40.2% were in the agriculture sector. Besides 12.7 percent were engaged in

manufacturing sector and the rest (6.9%) were in other industry in the year 2010.

Table 07.14: Employed person 15 years and over by sex and economic sectors, 200506 and

2010

Broad economic

sector

Both Women Men

Number

(000)

(%) Number

(000)

(%) Number

(000)

(%)

2005-2006

Total 47356 100.0 11278 100.0 36080 100.0

Agriculture 22767 48.1 7683 68.1 15084 41.8

Non- Agriculture 24859 51.9 3595 31.9 20996 58.2

Service 17714 37.4 2183 19.4 15532 43.1

Other industry 1651 3.5 114 1.0 1538 4.3

Manufacturing 5224 11.0 1298 11.5 3926 10.9

2010

Total 54084 100.0 16202 100.0 37882 100.0

Agriculture 25727 47.6 10506 64.8 15221 40.2

Non- Agriculture 28705 53.1 5705 35.2 23000 60.7

Service 19119 35.4 3546 21.9 15572 41.1

Other industry 2855 5.3 251 1.6 2604 6.9

Manufacturing 6731 12.4 1907 11.8 4824 12.7

Source: Labour Force Survey 2005-06, and 2010 BBS

75

The same pattern is observed during the year of 2005-06. Among women, the highest 68.1% were

engaged in agriculture sector followed by 31.9% were in non-agriculture sector and 19.4% were in

service sector. But there were some variations in the pattern for men, as high as 58.2% were engaged in

non-agriculture sector followed by 41.8% in agriculture and 43.1% in service sector.

7.15 Employed by Main Industries

It is apparent from the table 7.15 that in 2010 at the national level as high as 64.8% employed women

were engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishing industry followed by 11.8% in manufacturing industry.

The other notable industries wholesale and retail trade were (6.3%) and education services (2.0%). For

men the highest 40.2% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, fishing industry followed by 17.2%

wholesale, and retail trade sector and 12.8% were in manufacturing sector for the year 2010.

In the urban areas, the highest 48.90% women were engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishing followed

by 23.11% manufacturing. Men 21.97% were in wholesale and retail trade followed by 19.38%

manufacturing industries and 13.03% were transport storage and communication industry. In the rural

area, 69.51% women were engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishing compared to 48.17% men.

Employment of men in manufacturing was 10.76% and 8.46% for women.

Table 07.15: Distribution of employed persons 15 years and over by major industries by sex

and residence, 200506 and 2010

Major industry National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-2006

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture hunting and forestry 66.54 39.27 33.86 8.48 76.61 48.86

Fishing 1.59 2.54 0.36 0.89 1.77 3.05

Mining and quarrying 0.06 0.12 0.04 0.12 0.07 0.12

Manufacturing 11.51 10.88 24.58 17.38 7.48 8.87

Electricity, gas, water 0.03 0.20 0.05 0.41 0.02 0.14

Contraction 0.92 3.94 0.95 5.76 0.91 3.37

Wholesale and retail tirade 3.58 18.58 6.11 28.39 2.80 15.53

Hotel and restaurant 0.45 1.83 0.87 2.65 0.33 1.58

Transport, storage, communication 0.58 10.84 1.32 14.83 0.36 9.59

Bank, insurance & finance 1.02 1.09 2.80 2.88 0.47 0.53

76

Major industry National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Real estate, rant, business activities 0.10 0.63 0.22 1.49 0.07 0.36

Public administration 0.92 2.16 1.90 4.43 0.62 1.45

Education services 3.04 2.67 6.76 3.82 1.89 2.31

Health a social workers 1.08 0.67 2.81 1.43 0.54 0.43

Community, social & personal service activities 8.58 4.58 17.38 7.11 5.87 3.80

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 64.84 40.18 48.90 13.57 69.51 48.17

Mining and quarrying 0.10 0.25 0.03 0.25 0.12 0.24

Manufacturing 11.77 12.75 23.11 19.38 8.46 10.76

Electricity, gas, steam & air conditioning supply 0.03 0.24 0.11 0.51 0.01 0.16

Water supply; sewerage, waste management and

remediation act

0.02 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.01 0.04

Construction 1.40 6.31 1.42 8.75 1.40 5.58

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor

vehicles and motors

6.34 17.24 4.12 21.97 6.99 15.82

Transportation and storage 1.51 9.87 1.06 13.03 1.64 8.92

Accommodation & food service activities 0.35 2.05 0.41 2.73 0.33 1.84

Information and communication 0.02 0.14 0.03 0.24 0.02 0.11

Financial and insurance activities 0.32 0.83 0.95 2.22 0.14 0.41

Real estate activities and rent 0.01 0.09 0.00 0.29 0.02 0.03

Professional,scientific & technical activities 0.14 0.25 0.14 0.65 0.14 0.13

Administrative & support service activities 0.27 1.17 0.65 2.98 0.16 0.62

Public administration and defence ; compulsory

social security

0.22 1.33 0.65 2.66 0.10 0.93

Education 2.01 2.54 3.92 3.15 1.45 2.35

Human health and social work activities 1.02 0.70 1.23 1.17 0.97 0.56

Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.04 0.16 0.05 0.14 0.04 0.16

Other service activities 4.43 4.33 4.77 5.83 4.32 3.88

Activities of households as employers;

undifferentiated goods

5.22 0.43 8.42 0.99 4.28 0.25

Activities of extraterritorial organizations &

bodies

0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00

7.16 Weekly Hours Worked

Table 7.16 provides percentage distribution of employed persons by weekly hours worked. It is revealed

from the table that in 2010, among the women, the highest 42.1% worked 40-49 hours in a week

followed by 28.0% worked less than 15 hours in a week and 12.1% worked 50-59 hours in a week. On

the other hand, among the men, as highest as 42.1% worked 50-59 hours followed by 26.1% worked 40-

49 hours in a week and 22.7% who worked 60 hours or more in a week. These exists gender issue as

women works more hours than that of men in weekly working hours.

In the urban area for employed women ,the highest 40.9% worked 40-49 hours in a week followed by

22.6% who worked less than 15 hours and 14.4% worked 50-59 hours in a week. For men, the highest

32.1% worked 40-49 hours in a week followed by 31.9% who worked 50-59 hours in a week and 30.7%

worked 60 hours or more in a week.

On the other hand, in the rural area, for employed women, the highest 42.5% worked 40-49 hours in a

week followed by 29.6% who worked less than 15 hours and 11.4% worked 50-59 hours in a week.

77

Table 07.16: Percentage distribution of employed persons by weekly hours worked by sex

and residence, 20052006 and 2010

Weekly hours

worked

Bangladesh Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-2006

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<15 hrs 39.0 1.3 17.1 0.6 45.8 1.6

15-19 5.9 1.0 2.2 0.4 7.1 1.2

20-29 18.5 4.3 12.8 2.3 20.2 4.9

30-39 9.5 7.3 15.3 5.1 7.8 8.0

40-49 13.3 29.6 24.0 28.8 10.0 29.8

50-59 6.9 25.4 12.7 21.1 5.1 26.7

60 + hrs 6.9 31.1 15.9 41.5 4.1 27.9

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<15 hrs 28.0 3.8 22.6 1.9 29.6 4.4

15-19 0.9 1.7 0.6 0.8 0.9 2.0

20-29 8.8 2.2 7.7 1.4 9.2 2.4

30-39 1.1 2.3 1.4 1.9 0.9 2.4

40-49 42.1 26.1 40.9 32.1 42.5 24.3

50-59 12.1 42.1 14.4 31.9 11.4 45.2

60 +hrs 7.1 22.7 12.3 30.7 5.6 20.2

Source: Labour Force Survey,2005-2006 and 2010 BBS

7.17 Growth of Labour Force by Industries

The growth rate of employed population by industry and sex has been presented in table 7.17. It is

revealed from the table that positive growth was found in case of some industries, whereas negative

growth was also seen in some industries.

Table 07.17: Average annual growth rate by industries and sex, 20052006 & 2010

Major industry Both Women Men

2002-03 to 2005-06

Total 2.23 4.63 1.52

Agriculture, hunting and Forestry -0.33 9.32 -4.23

Fishing 1.60 119.29 -3.74

Mining and quarrying -24.64 91.29 18.07

Manufacture 6.35 -8.70 14.18

Electricity, gas and water supply -8.12 -27.88 -6.74

Construction -0.37 2.35 -0.56

Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles, motor 5.18 23.48 4.39

Hotel and restaurants 8.14 15.62 7.64

Transport, storage, communications 9.66 38.21 9.37

Financial intermediation 31.49 82.24 24.32

Real estate, renting and business activities 7.20 16.26 6.86

Public administration and defense -3.71 6.96 -4.84

Education 3.29 2.55 3.60

Health & social workers -10.44 -5.81 -12.28

Community, social and personal service & other activities 0.95 -11.85 13.34

78

Major industry Both Women Men

2005-06 to 2010

Total 3.32 9.06 1.22

Agriculture, Forestry & related works 4.29 8.41 1.79

Mining and quarrying 18.98 22.18 18.44

Manufacturing 6.34 9.62 5.15

Electricity, gas, water 12.04 27.46 11.14

Construction 13.52 19.51 13.01

Wholesale and retail trade 1.53 23.39 -0.66

Hotel and restaurant 3.89 2.34 4.01

Transport, storage, communication service 3.81 32.99 -0.78

Bank, insurance & finance -8.28 -20.32 -5.63

Real estate, rent, business activities 24.47 45.17 22.97

Public administration -12.31 -26.52 -10.90

Education services -0.37 -1.27 -0.08

Health & social workers 7.92 8.58 -7.48

Community, personal service household sector & others 6.30 11.96 2.28

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2005-2006 and 2010 BBS

The growth rate of employment by industries between 2005-06 to 2010 for women shows the highest

positive growth rate occurred in ‘real state rent and business’ sector 45.17% followed by ‘transport,

storage and communication’ sector (32.99%). For men, the highest growth rate was held in real estate,

rent, business sector 22.97% followed by mining and quarrying sector 18.44% and construction sector

13.01%.

7.18 Average Weekly Hours Worked by Employment Status

Table 7.18 highlights weekly average hours worked by employed persons by status in employment by

sex and residence. It is observed that some gender differentials existed in case of weekly hours of work

by employment status. At national level, for women the highest 54 hours of work was found in case of

employer and day labourer (agriculture) in 2010. On the other hand, in case of men, the highest average

weekly hours of work was observed 56 hours as irregular paid worker followed by employer 55 hours

worked per week.

Table 07.18: Average weekly hours worked of employed persons 15 years and over by

status, sex and residence, 20052006 and 2010

(Hours)

Status of employment National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-06

Total 26 52 39 54 23 51

Regular paid employee 52 54 54 54 49 55

Employer 47 53 73 58 38 51

Self- employed 34 52 37 56 33 51

Unpaid family worker 15 49 16 52 15 48

Irregular paid worker 41 53 40 55 41 52

Day labourer (agriculture) 44 51 49 51 44 51

Day labourer (non-agriculture) 48 52 46 51 48 52

Domestic worker/Maid worker 36 51 42 48 35 52

Paid/Unpaid apprentice 38 49 37 44 38 51

79

Status of employment National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2010

Total 35 51 38 53 34 50

Regular paid employee 52 52 53 53 50 52

Employer 54 55 51 56 55 55

Self employed (agriculture) 49 51 48 49 49 51

Self employed (non-agriculture) 47 53 49 55 47 52

Unpaid family worker 23 29 24 33 23 28

Irregular paid worker 53 56 54 57 52 55

Day labourer (agriculture) 54 54 54 54 54 54

Day labourer (non- agriculture) 51 54 50 56 52 53

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2010, BBS

In urban areas, 2010 the highest 54 hours of work done by the irregular paid women workers and day

labourers (agri) followed by 53 hours of work by the regular paid employees . On the other hand for men,

the highest 57 hours of work as irregular paid worker followed by day labourers in non-agriculture sector

and employer both (56 hours worked per week).

In rural area for women, the highest 55 hours of work was found for employer followed by day labourers

in agriculture (54 hours) as against the highest 55 hours of work as employer and irregular paid worker,

followed by 54 hours’ work weekly by day labourers in agriculture sector for the men.

7.19 Average Weekly Hours Worked by Industry

Average weekly hours worked by major industry for the period 2005-06 & 2010 have been presented in

the table 7.19. It is seen from the table that at the national level for women in 2010, the highest average

weekly hours of work was in information and communication (54 hours) followed by construction,

professional, scientific and technical activities, human health and social work (50 hours) and lastly

manufacturing (48 hours). On the other hand, among men, the highest average weekly hours of work was

found for accommodation and food service activities & 56 hours followed by transportation and storage

and transport storage (55 hours) whole sale and retail trade,, professional, scientific and technical

activities (53 hours) .

Some gender variations in weekly hours work by employed persons is noticeable. In the urban areas in

2010, the highest average weekly hours of work (56 hours) was found in accommodation and food

service activities for women followed by 54 hours in information and communication and 53 hours in

manufacturing. For men, the highest average weekly hours of work 58 hours in accommodation and food

service activities followed by 57 hours in transportation and storage and 56 hours in case of wholesale

and retail trade and 54 hours in manufacturing, water supply and other service activities.

On the other hand in rural area for women, the highest (57 hours) weekly hours work was in arts,

entertainment and recreation followed by 54 hours in case of professional, scientific and technical

activities and information and communication and 50 hours in construction, public administration and

defense.

80

Table 07.19: Average weekly hours worked by industry, gender and residence, 200506 & 2010

Major industry National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-2006

Total 26 52 39 54 23 51

Agriculture, Hunting & Forestry 18 48 24 47 17 48

Fishing 20 48 18 47 50 48

Mining & Quarrying 48 57 49 53 48 58

Manufacture 49 56 56 57 45 55

Electricity, gas & water supply 68 51 71 51 66 52

Construction 36 51 34 51 37 51

Wholesale & retail trade, repair of Motor vehicles,

motor

35 56 36 57 35 55

Hotel & restaurants 44 61 49 64 40 60

Transport, storage & communications 53 57 53 56 54 57

Financial intermediations 43 47 43 45 43 50

Retail estate, renting & business activities 45 51 44 51 46 51

Public administration & defense 43 49 47 49 40 49

Education 44 49 45 47 44 51

Health & social work 45 52 50 51 39 52

Other community, social & personal services

activities

41 53 40 54 51 53

2010

Total 35 51 38 53 34 50

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 31 49 29 49 32 49

Mining and quarrying 31 48 38 50 31 47

Manufacturing 48 51 53 54 44 50

Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 45 49 44 49 48 50

Water supply; sewerage, waste management and

remediation act

38 51 45 54 24 50

Construction 50 52 52 53 50 51

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles

and mot

46 53 48 56 46 52

Transportation and storage 43 55 43 57 43 54

Accommodation and food service activities 44 56 56 58 40 55

Information and communication 54 50 54 53 54 48

Financial and insurance activities 46 48 47 48 46 49

Real estate activities 16 50 - 52 16 41

Professional, scientific and technical activities 50 53 38 52 54 55

Administrative & support service activities 46 49 45 48 47 49

Public administration and defense; compulsory

social security

46 49 43 49 50 50

Education 47 48 47 48 47 47

Human health and social work activities 50 52 48 51 51 53

Arts, entertainment and recreation 44 49 19 47 57 50

Other service activities 26 53 38 54 22 52

Activities of households as employers;

undifferentiated good

32 53 38 53 28 53

Extraterritorial organizations and bodies - 50 - 50 - 48

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2005-06 and 2010 BBS

81

7.20 Hours Worked by Occupation

Average hours worked by employed population in major occupation can be seen from table 7.20. It is

observed from the table that among the total employed women, the highest average hours of work was

done by others 49 hours followed by professional technical 47 hours and 46 sales worker and 45

administrative managerial, clerical worker occupation. Among the men, the highest 53 hours of work was

found for production and transport labourer followed by 52 hours of worked for service workers, sales

worker and others and 51 hours of work done by clerical worker.

The gender variations in weekly working hour by occupation are noticeable. In the urban area, among the

women the highest 50 hours’ work was done by production and transport labourer followed by

professional, technical, administrative manager and sales worker 47 hours’. On the other hand, for men,

the highest 55 hours’ work was found for production and transport labourer and sales worker followed by

service worker occupation (54 hours) and professional technical and others (49 hours) occupation.

In the rural area, among the women, professional and technical (47 hours) followed sales workers (46

hours) occupation. Among the men, the highest 52 hours worked by service worker and the workers in

clerical service and sales occupation 51 hours per week.

Table 07.20: Employed persons 15 years and over by average weekly hours worked by

occupation, sex & residence, 20052006 and 2010.

(Hours)

Major occupation

National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-2006

Total 26 52 39 55 22 51

Professional, technical 45 50 46 50 43 50

Administration, managerial 43 58 41 57 44 58

Clerical workers 40 49 42 48 38 50

Sale workers 36 54 37 56 35 53

Service workers 47 57 48 59 46 56

Agriculture forestry & fisheries 18 48 23 48 17 48

Production transport labourers 47 55 52 56 43 54

Others 56 50 56 44 56 53

2010

Total 35 51 38 53 34 50

Professional, technical 47 49 47 49 47 49

Administration, managerial 45 50 47 51 45 48

Clerical workers 45 51 44 50 45 51

Sale workers 46 52 47 55 46 51

Service workers 37 52 42 54 36 52

Agriculture forestry & fisheries 31 49 29 49 46 51

Production transport labourers 41 53 50 55 32 49

Others 49 52 49 53 35 52

Source: Report on labour Force Survey 2002-2003, 2005-2006,2010, BBS

82

7.21 Employment in Garments Industry

Employment in garments industry under BGMEA member industries by sex have been presented in

table 7.21. It is noticed from the table that in 2001-02 women employees in garment industry was

three times higher than men employees. The ratio was remaining same for the year 2002-03. For the

year 2003-04 and 2004-05 the ratio of women participation was increased, it was about four times

higher than male employees. In the year of 2005-08, the ratio of women employee was again

increased and it was more than five times higher than men employee. It is important to note that the

women participation in garment industry is significantly increasing over times. In 2010, the number

of workers in RMG sector was 3.60 million of which 2.88 million (80 percent) were women.

Table 07.21: Employment in garments industry by gender, 20012010

Year Total (Million) Women (Million) Men (Million) % Women

2001-02 1.80 1.35 0.45 75

2002-03 2.00 1.50 0.50 75

2003-04 2.00 1.56 0.44 78

2004-05 2.00 1.60 0.40 80

2005-06 2.20 1.87 0.33 85

2006-07 2.40 2.04 0.36 85

2007-08 2.80 2.32 0.48 83

2008-09 3.50 2.87 0.63 82

2009-10 3.60 2.88 0.72 80

Source: BGMEA

7.22 Overseas Employment

Overseas employment by sex and districts 2008-2010 is shown in table 7.22. It is observed from the

table that the highest overseas women employment 3756 was received by Dhaka district followed by

Manikganj (2586) in 2008. In 2010, Dhaka also recorded the highest 4459 overseas women employment

and followed by Manikganj (2934).

83

Table 07.22: Overseas employment by sex and zila (district), 20082011

Zila 2008 2009 2010 2011

Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men

Bangladesh 20814 831635 22224 443127 27703 355444 30576 529727

Barguna 116 2758 150 1436 264 1273 295 1626

Barisal 540 11631 695 5435 938 4413 976 6294

Bhola 93 6464 120 3985 179 3302 204 5441

Jholakati 128 2806 158 1395 221 1224 272 1665

Patuakhali 177 3154 198 1436 366 1152 381 1536

Projpur 161 4271 185 2324 265 2088 300 3026

Bandarban 4 205 191 4 182 24 304

Brahmanbaria 538 36225 683 22475 978 18888 1335 29764

Chandpur 283 33456 337 18031 399 16153 486 25486

Chittagong 164 88219 162 58145 108 48376 122 73311

Comilla 773 80173 893 50256 1048 45292 1023 66106

Cox,s Bazar 41 8173 30 5849 10 4593 38 9608

Feni 46 23706 53 14571 41 12216 59 19577

Habigonj 233 14920 261 7886 418 6040 595 8928

Khagrachhari 7 594 9 531 12 482 3 616

Lakshmipur 71 19457 72 11809 104 10939 109 16818

Maulvi bazer 87 16693 110 12248 148 10562 161 12932

Noakhali 119 32935 110 22330 166 18067 172 26719

Rangamati 5 310 2 282 12 256 22 422

Sunamgonj 72 9096 69 5479 119 4183 126 7140

Sylhet 93 19755 98 13888 99 11358 99 14468

Dhaka 3756 33393 3839 16609 4459 14180 4435 18134

Faridpur 1309 14690 1423 6294 1974 4978 2317 7792

Gazipur 1262 18253 1103 7887 1488 6524 1622 9281

Gopalgonj 110 6333 156 2793 179 1891 206 2835

Jamalpur 91 8767 97 3961 146 2070 146 2943

Kishoregonj 508 16839 592 8208 855 6603 1096 11751

Madaripur 286 11220 370 5559 610 4318 598 6510

Manikgonj 2586 13501 2780 6477 2934 5583 2946 7819

Munshigonj 668 25291 736 12383 844 10954 833 14773

Mymensingh 422 18956 447 8198 566 5910 711 9266

Narayangonj 1488 19550 1617 8451 1931 7280 2011 9867

Narsindgdi 967 22171 1078 10826 1241 8673 1678 14374

Netrokona 109 3539 106 1872 138 1148 183 1770

Rajbari 226 6174 250 2650 293 1891 321 2881

Shariatpur 353 1228 458 6641 614 4753 612 6440

Sherpur 50 1949 63 884 91 482 95 642

Tangail 342 42033 282 19622 334 15424 406 23190

Bagerhat 107 3733 185 1827 218 1489 244 2173

Chuadanga 86 4613 82 1495 91 773 77 1221

Jessore 427 15409 348 5001 433 2931 518 4351

Jhenaidah 260 9688 202 3061 231 1524 257 2616

Khulna 158 3628 165 1856 237 1579 231 1852

Kushtia 130 11908 132 4067 157 2056 179 3366

Magura 74 4958 79 1778 118 1205 126 1674

Meherpur 44 6829 43 1769 37 1195 55 2271

84

Zila 2008 2009 2010 2011

Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men

Narail 64 4044 62 1413 102 914 120 1505

Satkhira 135 4147 132 1433 162 1031 237 1491

Bogra 138 13979 107 4601 177 2447 182 3709

Dinajpur 49 2305 32 1194 74 772 112 1008

Gaibandha 73 4116 71 1663 94 1086 93 1596

Joypurhat 35 2363 23 798 57 384 54 586

Kurigram 14 1771 17 886 32 537 52 745

Lalmonirhat 12 835 18 461 20 254 37 306

Naogaon 141 6839 126 2623 125 1395 163 2082

Natore 69 5198 68 1839 78 950 102 1380

Nawabgonj 22 10756 21 3053 24 1928 39 3162

Nilphamari 36 1317 63 762 57 551 76 681

Pabna 154 12825 129 4823 186 2960 168 4404

Panchagarh 6 380 18 232 28 178 31 248

Rajshahi 87 5420 88 1705 101 890 102 1242

Rangpur 58 3806 77 1874 89 917 91 1193

Sirajgonj 135 10586 125 3072 134 1430 170 2335

Thakurgaon 16 1294 19 544 45 367 42 475

Source: Bangladesh Manpower Employment and Training (BMET)

7.23 Salaried Employees by IncomeGroups

Monthly income of salaried employees of different income groups has been presented in table 7.23. It is

observed from the table that among the women salaried employees, in 2010 the highest 17.0% drew

monthly salary in the income group Tk. 10000-12499 followed by income group Tk. 4000-4999

(10.93%) and Tk. 8000-8999 (10.23%). Among the men, the highest 21.9% drew salary in the range Tk.

10000-12499 followed by income group Tk. 8000-8999 (12.19%) and income group Tk. 4000-4999

(11.69%). There exists some variation in the income of salaried workers by gender.

In the rural area, among the women, the highest 19.3% drew monthly salary in the income group Tk.

10000-12499 followed by income group Tk. 9000-9999 (12.75%). Among the men, the highest 25.1%

was in the income group Tk. 10000-12499 followed by income group Tk. 4000-4999 (11.52%) and

income group Tk. 8000-8999 (11.10%).

In the urban area, among the women, the highest 15.6% were in the income group Tk. 10000-12499

followed by income group Tk. 3000-3999 (11.82%) and income group 2000-2499 (11.70%). On the

contrary, among the men, the highest 18.0%, draw monthly salary in the income group Tk.10000-12499

followed by income group Tk. 8000-8999 (13.49%) and income group Tk.4000-4999 (11.89%).

85

Table 07.23: Percent distribution of salaried workers by monthly income by sex and

residence, 20022003 ,200506, 2010

Monthly income

(In Taka)

National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2002-2003

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<750 10.9 3.5 6.5 2.1 14.0 4.4

751-1000 9.1 5.4 7.5 3.4 10.1 6.8

1001-1500 18.4 9.0 15.6 6.0 20.4 11.1

1501-2000 21.5 12.0 18.6 9.3 23.5 14.0

2001-2500 9.6 7.3 9.5 5.7 9.6 8.4

2501-3000 10.7 12.3 11.6 10.8 10.0 13.5

3001-3500 3.2 6.3 4.1 6.1 2.5 6.4

3501-4000 3.9 10.5 6.2 9.4 2.3 11.4

4001-5000 6.4 12.6 8.7 14.9 4.7 10.9

5001-7500 4.4 12.8 8.0 17.6 1.9 9.3

7501-1000 1.6 5.4 2.7 9.1 0.8 2.6

10000+ 0.4 2.9 0.9 5.4 0.0 1.1

2005-2006

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

< 1000 14.77 10.28 23.61 13.74 10.46 6.80

1001-2000 29.17 12.44 24.34 14.22 31.52 10.65

2001-3000 18.47 15.58 17.11 17.28 19.13 13.86

3001-4000 8.61 12.65 9.95 15.47 7.96 9.82

4001-5000 6.25 12.32 9.08 13.63 4.87 11.00

5001-6000 5.99 9.68 7.76 10.59 5.13 8.77

6001-7000 3.61 6.74 5.04 6.56 2.91 6.92

7001-8000 2.52 5.16 1.92 4.00 2.81 6.33

8001-9000 1.90 2.16 0.87 1.52 2.40 2.82

9000-10000 2.72 3.75 0.32 1.57 3.89 5.95

10000+ 6.00 9.23 0.00 1.42 8.92 17.08

2010

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100

<1500 0.90 0.51 0.23 0.31 2.15 0.67

1500-1999 3.69 1.09 3.18 0.94 4.49 1.21

2000-2499 8.98 3.12 11.70 3.34 4.49 2.95

2500-2999 6.61 3.19 7.61 2.71 5.03 3.57

3000-3999 10.02 6.51 11.82 6.88 7.18 6.21

4000-4999 10.93 11.69 11.36 11.89 10.23 11.52

5000-5999 3.27 5.63 2.95 4.59 3.95 6.46

6000-6999 6.75 10.55 6.02 11.06 7.90 10.15

7000-7999 6.26 4.23 6.70 3.96 5.75 4.44

8000-8999 10.23 12.19 8.98 13.49 12.21 11.10

9000-9999 8.49 6.73 5.80 4.31 12.75 8.68

10000-12499 17.0 21.9 15.6 18.0 19.3 25.1

12500-14999 1.7 3.0 1.7 3.4 1.8 2.6

15000-17499 1.3 2.8 1.8 3.8 0.6 2.0

17500-19999 0.5 1.0 0.6 1.5 0.5 0.5

20000-24999 1.6 2.9 2.0 4.5 0.7 1.5

25000-29999 0.4 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.3

30000-34999 0.5 0.9 0.7 1.5 0.1 0.4

35000+ 0.8 1.6 0.9 2.8 0.6 0.6

Source: Report on the Labour Force Survey, 2002-03, 2005-2006 and 2010, BBS

86

7.24 Wage Rate by Sex

Average wage rate of day labourers has been seen in table 7.24. It is observed from the table that wage of

women were lower than men for all sorts of labour. In 2010, the wage rate was increased compared to

2002-03. In 2010, wage rate for both women and men significantly increased. At the national level it was

Tk.184 for men and Tk. 170 for women. It is notable that the gender gap in wage rate in rural areas was

much less than in urban area. In the rural area wage rate of women was Tk. 198 as against Tk. 200 for

men whereas in the urban area it was Tk 161 for women compared to Tk. 180 for men.

Table 07.24: Average wage rate (Taka) of day labourers (15 years and above) by gender and

residence, 19992000, 200203 and 2010

Year National Urban Rural

Total Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men

1999-2000 61 38 65 59 35 63 80 59 88

2002-03 62 39 64 60 37 62 70 42 75

2010 183 170 184 179 161 180 200 198 200

Source: Statistical Profile of Women in Bangladesh,; Labour Force Survey, 2002-2003,2010 BBS

7.25 Day Labourers by Weekly Income

Weekly income of the agriculture and non-agricultural labourers has been presented in table7.25. It is

notable that there exist variations among men & women and urban & rural with respect to weekly

income of labourers. Among the men the highest 39.5% had income between Tk.501-1000 whereas

among women the highest 32.9% had income between Tk.1501-2000. In rural area, for women the

highest 30.2% had income between Tk. 1501-2000 and in the urban area for the women the highest

41.4% had income in the same range.

At national level among the agricultural women labourers the highest 28.5% had income between

Tk.501-1000 whereas, among non-agricultural women labourers the highest 41.0 % had income between

Tk.1501-2000. At national level among the agricultural men labourers the highest 43.8% had income

between Tk.501-1000 whereas no-agricultural men labourers the highest 37.1% in income group

Tk.1001-1500.

Table 07.25: Percentage distribution of day labour by weekly income and sex, 200506 and 2010

Weekly income (Tk) National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005-06

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

< 500 81.7 49.9 68.2 34.2 86.1 52.7

501-1000 16.1 43.2 29.2 52.9 11.7 41.5

1001-1500 1.7 5.6 2.1 10.4 1.6 4.7

1501-2000 0.0 0.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.1

2000+ 0.6 1.1 0.4 1.4 0.6 1.0

87

Weekly income (Tk) National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2010

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<= 500 21.4 9.6 16.3 6.7 23.0 10.4

501-1000 27.9 39.5 22.0 33.5 29.7 41.0

1001-1500 9.6 31.5 10.5 33.8 9.4 30.9

1501-2000 32.9 16.0 41.4 20.1 30.2 14.9

2001+ 8.2 3.4 9.8 5.9 7.7 2.8

Day labourer (agriculture)

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<= 500 28.1 12.8 11.9 10.7 29.5 13.0

501-1000 28.5 43.8 24.3 42.1 28.9 44.0

1001-1500 11.5 26.9 18.6 27.6 10.9 26.9

1501-2000 23.7 14.4 37.7 17.8 22.5 14.1

2001+ 8.1 2.1 7.4 1.8 8.2 2.1

Day labourer (non-agriculture)

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

<= 500 15.4 5.8 17.2 5.6 14.4 5.8

501-1000 27.4 34.1 21.6 31.3 30.9 35.7

1001-1500 7.9 37.1 8.9 35.4 7.3 38.1

1501-2000 41.0 18.0 42.1 20.7 40.4 16.3

2001+ 8.3 5.1 10.3 7.0 7.0 4.0

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2005-06, 2010, BBS

7.26 Monthly Variation in Daily Wage Rate

Trend in average daily wage rate (without food) of agricultural laboruers have been presented in table

7.26. It is revealed from the table that during the time period of 2008-09 to 2010-11 daily wage rate for

both women and men were increasing and it was as usual pattern of wage rate that the men wage rate

was always higher than that of women.

Table 07.26: Average daily wage rate of agriculture labour by sex. 200811

Period/Month Without Food With Food

Women Men Women Men

2008-09

July 2008 100 139 85 123

August 2008 102 142 84 126

September 2008 102 142 89 127

October 2008 103 142 89 127

November 2008 105 144 90 131

December 2008 106 146 92 132

January 2009 107 147 92 133

February 2009 107 148 93 134

March 2009 107 148 93 135

April 2009 110 152 95 139

May 2009 112 154 99 140

June 2009 105 150 98 136

88

Period/Month Without Food With Food

Women Men Women Men

2009 -10

July 2009 108 150 104 138

August 2009 111 154 103 145

September 2009 107 147 99 133

October 2009 106 147 97 137

November 2009 108 158 110 148

December 2009 111 154 103 145

January 2010 117 164 100 153

February 2010 114 162 109 154

March,2010 109 161 105 153

April 2010 122 183 116 174

May 2010 131 196 129 188

June 2010 122 170 116 169

2010-11

July 2010 128 181 116 162

August 2010 128 182 120 168

September 2010 131 183 109 160

Source: Agriculture Wing. BBS

7.27 Unemployment Rate by Sex

The unemployment rate of population for the year 2005-06 and 2010 has been shown in table 7.27.

According to the labour force survey 2010, the rate of unemployment stands at 4.5% and it was 4.3% in

2005-06. In the urban area the unemployment rate was 6.5 percent in 2010 and it was 4.3 percent in

2005-2006. In the rural area, the rate of unemployment was 4.0% in 2010, which was 4.2% in 2005-06.

There exists gender differential in the unemployment rate. The rate of unemployment for men was 4.1%

in 2010 and it was 3.4% in 2005-06. In the urban area, the unemployment rate for men was 3.6% in

2005-06 and it increased 5.7% in 2010.

Table 07.27: Unemployment rate of population (15+) by sex and residence, 200203, 2005

06 and 2010

(Thousand)

Year/Area Both Men Women

No. of

unemployed

population

Unemployment

rate (%)

No. of

unemployed

population

Unemployment

rate (%)

No. of

unemployed

Population

Unemployment

rate (%)

2005-2006

National 2104 4.3 1250 3.4 854 7.0

Urban 505 4.3 315 3.6 190 6.7

Rural 1599 4.2 935 3.3 664 7.2

2010

National 2568 4.5 1595 4.1 973 5.7

Urban 858 6.5 524 5.7 334 8.3

Rural 1710 4.0 1011 3.6 639 4.9

Source: Labour Force Survey 2005-2006, 2010 BBS

89

7.28 Unemployment Rate by Age Group

Unemployment rates by age groups, sex and residence has been shown in table7.28. It is revealed from

the data that, at the national level, for both women and men together the highest unemployment rate was

found 10.6% in age group 15-19 years followed by 7.1% in age group 20-24 and 5.4% in age group 25-

29. This pattern also found in case of male. On the other hand, for women, the highest rate of

unemployment was observed for age group 15-19 (11.4%) followed by age group 20-24 (7.7%) and 25-

29 (7.3%) in 2010. This pattern of unemployment rate was gradually decreasing with the increase of agegroup.

It is important to note that unemployment rate is lower in all age groups in the urban area

compared to rural area.

Table 07.28: Percentage of unemployment rates by age groups, sex and residence, 200506

and 2010.

Broad age

group

National Urban Rural

Both Women Men Both Women Men Both Women Men

2005-2006

Total 4.3 7.0 3.4 4.3 6.7 3.6 4.2 7.2 3.3

15-19 8.7 21.5 6.5 8.0 9.0 7.7 8.9 30.3 6.3

20-24 9.7 10.7 9.3 9.4 10.0 9.1 9.8 10.8 9.4

25-29 6.2 7.2 5.7 8.7 10.1 8.1 5.3 6.2 4.8

30-34 2.9 5.2 2.0 2.3 4.8 1.5 3.1 5.4 2.8

35+ 1.9 4.5 1.1 1.7 4.2 1.1 2.0 4.8 1.1

2010

Total 4.5 5.7 4.1 6.5 8.3 5.7 4.0 4.9 3.6

15-19 10.6 11.4 9.8 12.4 13.4 11.7 10.1 10.6 9.8

20-24 7.1 7.7 6.8 9.9 11.5 8.7 6.3 6.4 6.2

25-29 5.4 7.3 4.3 7.9 10.8 6.3 4.6 6.2 3.7

30-34 4.2 4.8 3.8 5.6 6.9 5.0 3.6 4.0 3.4

35+ 2.4 2.7 2.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 2.0 2.4 1.9

Source: Report on Labour Force Survey 2002-2003, 2005-2006,2010, BBS

7.29 Unemployment and Underemployment

Unemployed persons and underemployment rates of population aged 15 years and over has been

shown in table 7.29 It is observed from the table in 2005-2006 that the under employment rate is

10.9% for men and 68.3% for women. The under employment rate for rural men and women were

12.4% and 77.0% compared to 5.9% and 39.8% for the urban men and women respectively.

Under employment rate is lower in all categories for the year 2005-06 compared to the year

2002-03. So, it is notable that the under employment was decreasing over the time period.

90

Table 07.29: Unemployed persons and underemployment rates of population aged 15 years

and over by sex and residence, 20022003 and 200506

(Thousand)

Economic category Bangladesh Rural Urban

Both Women Men Both Women Men Both Women Men

2002-2003

Employed persons 44322 9844 34478 33590 7339 26260 10723 2505 8219

Unemployed persons

(<35 hours/week) 15079 7121 7959 12217 5570 6647 2860 1547 1312

Under employment

rates (%) 34.2 72.3 23.1 36.4 75.9 25.3 26.7 71.8 16.0

2005-2006

Total employed persons 47357 11277 36080 36132 8621 27511 11224 2656 8569

Unemployed persons

(<35 hours/week) 11615 7696 3919 10053 6640 3412 1562 1057 507

Under employment

rates (%) 24.5 68.3 10.9 27.8 77.0 12.4 13.9 39.8 5.9

Source: Labour Force Survey, 2002-2003, 2005-2006, BBS

7.30 Child Labour

Child labour force and economic participation rate by girls and boys are given in table 7.30. The child

labour force for boys was always higher than girls labour force. Boys labour force was almost three times

and more than girls labour force. Almost the same pattern was found for the economic activities, during

the mentioned year.

Table 07.30: Child labourer and economic activities by girls and boys, 1988, 200506

Year CLF in million Rate of economic activities

Girls Boys Girls Boys

1988 0.5 2.9 2.2 6.1

1990 1.8 3.3 0.6 1.4

1995-96 1.2 2.9 3.9 5.0

2002-03 0.8 2.6 10.6 25.6

2005-06 0.9 2.8 5.0 15.0

Source: National Child Labour Survey, 2002-03, and Labour Force Survey 2005-06, BBS

7.31 Persons Engaged by Activity and Average Size of Establishment

Persons engaged by sex, activity and average size of establishment has been presented in table 7.31. It is

revealed from the table that of the total 11.27 million workers are working in 3.70 million establishments.

Among these workers 1.22 million or 10.8% were women.

91

Table 07.31: Total establishments and persons engaged by sex, activity and establishment size

Activity

Persons Engaged Estab. Average

establish

ment size

Women Men Total

Mining and quarrying 2358 12341 14699 1689 8.7

Manufacturing 716345 2259235 2975580 450348 6.6

Electricity, gas and water supply 2752 26747 29499 1591 18.5

Construction 2277 33935 36212 3357 10.8

Wholesale and retail trade 135874 4374451 4510325 2167204 2.1

Hotels and restaurants 30254 664611 694865 234019 3.0

Transport, storage and communication 6364 234308 240672 90952 2.6

Bank, insurance and financial institution 33839 197971 231810 21645 10.7

Real estate and renting 6843 120566 127409 40916 3.1

Public administration and defense 22970 318045 341015 23964 14.2

Education 155611 697715 853326 149528 5.7

Health and social work 49427 181872 231299 61962 3.7

Community, social and personal services 64499 919212 983711 460977 2.1

Bangladesh 1229413 10041009 11270422 3708152 3.0

Source: Economic Census 2001 and 2003, BBS

Table 07.32.1: Average daily wage rate & monthly earnings of nonfarm workers by industry,

200910.

(In Taka)

S.l.

No Industry

All Quarter (Jul-Jan), 2009-10. 4th Quarter (Apr-Jun), 2009-10.

Daily wages Monthly

salary/income Daily wages Monthly

salary/income

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Foods & drinks 182 0 3991 2291 187 0 4175 2515

Edible oil mill. 152 105 3765 3025 157 120 3957 3200

Shrimp Processing 205 180 4171 3367 206 180 4269 3578

Rice/Wheat/Spices machine 141 76 2900 1758 149 83 3105 2005

Bidi/tobacco 100 93 2273 1894 104 98 2511 2034

Textile mill 249 169 5932 4069 254 195 6161 4264

Readymade garments 0 141 4438 3329 0 145 4555 3545

Jute textile 223 0 5604 2738 223 0 5777 2867

Leather products 200 122 4202 3254 203 125 4377 3400

Wood works 172 0 3653 3231 185 0 3870 0

Cane / wooden furniture 216 121 8721 3231 229 137 5869 3443

Printing ,binding and paper production 181 0 3738 2658 192 0 3953 0

Pharmaceuticals 192 143 6810 4262 192 145 5697 4567

Match factory 200 143 4427 2102 200 0 4746 2375

Plastic products 153 113 5079 2398 159 100 4390 3133

Cement factory 192 153 9955 4525 193 0 7166 0

Ceramic products 220 0 5583 2885 223 0 5112 0

Basic metal 170 0 5198 0 177 0 4981 0

Engineering workshop 268 0 4097 0 263 0 4213 0

Electricity, gas and water supply 236 0 6001 0 237 0 6044 0

Construction 235 160 4799 3934 237 167 6029 4108

Wholesale and retail trade 77 0 4074 2688 90 0 3783 2813

Hotel (residential) 100 0 4589 0 100 0 3732 0

Restaurant 167 0 4567 3812 169 0 4867 3939

Chinese restaurant 0 0 5743 0 0 0 5840 0

92

S.l.

No Industry

All Quarter (Jul-Jan), 2009-10. 4th Quarter (Apr-Jun), 2009-10.

Daily wages Monthly

salary/income Daily wages Monthly

salary/income

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tea stall 143 143 3220 2080 147 148 3358 2186

Road transport 224 143 5555 0 230 150 5762 0

Water transport 190 0 7750 0 198 0 7911 0

Railway 177 0 7550 0 183 0 7820 0

Air transport 0 0 8753 0 0 0 9580 0

Postal communication 0 0 4156 3375 0 0 4346 3600

Banking and insurance 0 0 8918 9142 0 0 9367 9548

Real-estate , renting and business

activities 0 0 3741 0 0 0 3878 0

Private education 0 0 2442 2137 0 0 2659 2395

Private health and social works 230 157 4820 4484 240 167 5021 4748

Community social and personal

services 245 182 5297 4561 261 196 5583 4811

Source: Wage Rate and Earnings of Non-Farm Workers, September, 2011

Table 07.32.2: Average daily wage rate & monthly income of nonfarm workers in some

specific services by occupation, 200910

S.l. No Occupation

All Quarter (Jul-June), 2009-10. 4th Quarter (Apr-Jun), 2009-10.

Daily wages Monthly salary/income Daily wages Monthly salary/income

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

01 Non-agriculture day labour 165 126 3848 2859 171 137 4063 3136

02 Rickshaw/Van puller 212 0 4846 0 228 0 5422 0

03 Household garbage collector 169 79 2737 1800 188 87 3019 2013

04 Sweeper 170 130 3717 2901 176 137 3798 3009

05 Minti 159 0 3514 3233 178 0 3939 3204

06 Cook/Chef 191 149 3442 2575 204 165 3616 2826

07 Household maid/workers 135 104 2301 1861 150 121 2769 2060

08 Barbar 202 0 4702 3900 220 0 5142 3900

09 Night Security guard 130 0 3188 3200 153 0 3549 3200

10 Tailor 209 159 4423 3230 229 182 5065 3732

11 Cobbler/shoe shiner 189 0 4116 0 206 0 4512 0

12 Lock/Key repairer 180 0 4068 0 200 0 4497 0

13 Transport worker 187 0 3994 0 199 0 4421 0

14 Farewalla/ hoawker 189 126 4214 3453 199 138 4482 3063

15 Salesman of footpath 214 117 4654 3770 227 136 5026 3831

16 Retail salesman/women 165 86 3113 1644 175 100 3398 1854

17 Office cleaner 168 104 2333 1851 178 115 2712 1952

18 Typist/stenographer 196 174 4707 3236 215 235 5127 3850

19 Carpenter 230 0 4984 0 252 0 5476 0

20 Blacksmith 203 0 4577 0 215 0 5080 0

21 Rubber stamp maker 180 0 4048 0 202 0 4504 0

22 Gardener 171 140 3044 3060 190 148 3362 3172

23 Electrician 230 0 5480 0 246 0 6023 0

24 Iron man 195 100 4144 1967 215 107 4699 2200

25 Canvasser 192 114 4223 0 209 118 4829 0

Source:Wage Rate and Earnings of Non-Farm Workers, September, 2011

93

CHAPTER 8

Education

This chapter contains several sex-disaggregated data on education. Education is one of the most

important human basic needs. It also provides a detailed account gender differences in primary,

secondary, college, professional, technical and vocational and university education, focusing on changes

over time. Adequate and quality statistics on education are vital for the planners and policymakers to

formulate effective plans and programs for the development of human resources. In this chapter

indicators discussed by sex over time are (i) literacy rate of population 7 years and over (ii) adult literacy

rate (iii) literacy rate by Zila (iv) gross enrolment rate for primary level (v) net enrolment (vi) drop-out

rate (vii) ratio of teacher by sex (viii) gross enrolment rate for secondary level (ix) ratio of girls to boys

(x) performance of girls students (xi) number of students, teachers and so on. Information on different

types of institutions, teachers and students by sex are also provided in this chapter.

8.01 Literacy Rate of Population 7 years and over

Data exhibit in table 8.01 give apparent idea about literacy rate of population 7 years and over by sex and

residence for the period 1961-2011. It is evident from the table that the literacy rate of women at national

level had significantly increased over time starting from 10.7% in 1961 to 49.4% in 2011 indicating 38.7

percentage points increase while in the same period literacy rate of men showed 22.7 percentage points

increase starting from 31.4% in 1961 to 54.1% in 2011.

Table 08.01: Literacy rate of population 7 years and over by sex and residence, 19612011

(In percentage)

Year National

Women Men

1961 10.7 31.4

1974 16.4 36.6

1981 17.5 33.8

1991 25.5 38.9

2011 49.4 54.1

Source: Population Census, BBS

8.02 Adult Literacy Rate (15 yrs and over)

Adult literacy rate of population aged 15+ yrs is shown in table 8.02. At the national level, adult literacy

rate of women was 18.0% in 1981 and increased to 49.2% in 2011, indicating 31.2 percentage points

increase over time. It is also seen from the table that adult literacy rate of women in urban was 34.1 % in

1981 and increased to 65.2% in 2011.

In rural area, adult literacy rate of women was 15.3% in 1981 and increased to 44.4% in 2011 showing

29.1 percentage points increase. For men, it was 35.4% in 1981, and 50.8% in 2011. There was

significant difference of adult literacy rate by sex and by residence.

Adult literacy rates of women at national level have increased by 31.2% during 1981 to 2011. In case of

rural area it had increased by 29.1% and in case of urban area it had increased by 31.1%.

94

Table 08.02: Adult literacy rate of population aged 15+ by sex, 2081– 2011

(In percentage)

Year National Rural Urban

Women Men Women Men Women Men

1981 18.0 39.7 15.3 35.4 34.1 58.0

1991 25.8 44.3 21.5 38.7 44.0 62.6

2001 41.4 54.0 36.5 48.0 57.4 70.0

2011 49.2 56.8 44.4 50.8 65.2 73.4

Source : Population census 1981-2011, BBS

8.03 Zila wise Literacy Rate of Population 7+ years

Data on literacy rate of population 7 years and over by sex and zila are presented in table 8.03. It is

observed that the lowest literacy rate of women was 13.46% in Bandarban zila in 1991, followed by

Sherpur (14.09%) and Cox’s Bazar (14.90%). The highest literacy rate was found in Jhalakati (46.45%),

followed by Dhaka (45.93%) and Pirojpur (44.27%). Among men the lowest rate was 24.63% in

Sherpur followed by Jamalpur (26.64%) and Sunamgonj (27.55%). The highest rate for men was found

in Dhaka (60.11%) followed by Jhalakati (55.87%) and Pirojpur zila (52.89%).

In 2001 the highest rate among women was found 63.4% in Jhalakati Zila showing a rise of 16.9

percentage points over decade, followed by Pirojpur Zila having 63.0% with an increase of 18.7

percentage points, and Dhaka Zila (58.7%) with an increase of 12.8 percentage points. The lowest rate

was 23.7% in Bandarban Zila with an increase of 10.28 percentage points and 28.6% was in Sherpur Zila

with an increase of 14.5 percentage points over the decade.

Table 08.03: Literacy rate of population (7 years and above) by zila and sex 19912011

(In percentage)

Zila 1991 2001 2011

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Bangladesh 25.45 38.90 41.83 50.3 49.4 54.1

Barguna 35.05 45.15 52.8 57.7 56.1 59.2

Barisal 37.91 47.89 54.9 59.0 60.6 61.9

Bhola 19.00 28.58 34.1 39.5 42.9 43.6

Jhalakati 46.45 55.87 63.4 67.4 65.8 67.6

Patukhali 30.05 42.65 47.7 55.5 52.0 56.2

Pirojpur 44.27 52.89 63.0 65.6 64.7 65.0

Bandarban 13.46 32.19 23.7 38.2 30.9 40.3

Brahmanbaria 20.32 32.66 36.7 42.3 44.9 45.7

Chandpur 32.99 42.72 48.7 51.9 57.3 56.1

Chittagong 34.99 50.28 50.8 59.8 56.7 61.1

Comilla 26.03 40.20 42.6 49.4 52.6 54.1

Cox’s Bazar 14.90 28.16 26.0 34.0 38.2 40.3

Feni 33.15 48.21 51.2 57.5 58.3 61.1

Khgrachari 16.86 34.64 32.7 49.9 40.1 51.9

Lakshmipur 29.74 38.79 41.7 44.2 49.8 48.9

Noakhali 31.48 42.95 49.9 53.5 51.2 51.4

Rangamati 24.68 45.82 34.2 51.5 42.3 56.4

Dhaka 45.93 60.11 58.7 69.6 66.9 73.6

Faridpur 20.75 34.61 37.0 44.6 47.7 50.3

Gazipur 29.35 43.16 51.9 60.5 58.9 66.0

Gopalganj 31.64 44.73 47.4 55.2 56.0 60.3

95

Zila 1991 2001 2011

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Jamalpur 16.00 26.64 28.0 35.5 35.9 41.1

Kishoregonj 17.84 28.46 35.1 41.4 40.3 41.5

Madaripur 24.89 39.96 37.3 46.9 45.9 50.1

Manikganj 20.07 33.68 36.0 46.0 46.0 52.6

Munshiganj 31.14 40.25 49.1 54.1 55.7 56.4

Mymensingh 19.95 30.70 36.3 41.9 42.2 44.9

Narayangonj 32.24 46.23 46.9 55.9 54.6 59.5

Narsingdi 23.66 35.03 39.5 46.1 48.7 50.6

Netrokona 20.44 31.22 31.9 37.9 38.0 40.9

Rajbari 19.68 32.70 35.7 43.7 50.6 54.0

Shaiatpur 18.45 30.31 35.8 42.2 46.6 48.0

Sherpur 14.09 24.63 28.6 35.0 35.7 40.2

Tangail 22.42 36.13 35.9 44.9 43.8 50.0

Bagerhat 38.86 49.54 56.5 60.8 58.0 60.0

Chuadanga 19.56 30.51 38.1 43.5 44.9 46.9

Jessore 25.07 41.02 46.1 56.2 53.7 59.4

Jhenaidah 18.90 32.34 40.3 48.8 46.3 50.5

Khulna 34.56 52.16 51.8 63.3 55.9 60.3

Kushtia 20.28 30.85 37.2 43.4 44.8 47.9

Magura 20.86 35.23 40.1 49.2 48.5 52.9

Meherpur 18.62 27.36 35.6 39.9 45.7 46.9

Narail 28.93 42.23 44.7 52.4 59.3 63.3

Satkhira 21.00 39.73 38.9 51.8 48.2 56.1

Bogra 21.00 35.40 37.5 48.0 45.9 52.9

Dinajpur 21.27 37.78 40.0 51.0 49.1 55.7

Gaibandha 16.93 31.63 30.5 40.9 39.5 46.3

Joypurhat 22.19 37.47 44.0 55.0 53.5 61.4

Kurigram 14.70 29.86 27.6 39.4 38.8 46.5

Lalmonirhat 15.69 31.40 36.3 48.2 42.9 49.3

Naogaon 20.44 35.93 39.1 49.4 45.2 51.3

Natore 20.55 32.99 37.4 45.5 47.3 51.9

Nawabganj 19.10 28.45 34.4 37.4 44.3 41.6

Nilphamari 16.98 33.16 32.6 44.7 41.1 47.6

Pabna 21.46 31.79 39.5 45.2 45.6 47.8

Panchagarh 20.79 39.83 37.3 50.1 48.3 55.2

Rajshahi 23.16 37.64 42.5 52.3 50.1 55.8

Rangpur 19.40 33.52 37.1 46.5 45.9 51.2

Sirajganj 20.17 33.41 35.4 45.5 39.0 45.1

Thakurgaon 17.16 36.80 34.8 48.4 44.4 53.0

Hobigonj 18.54 30.41 33.62 41.76 38.9 42.2

Maulvi Bazar 24.56 36.83 38.5 45.6 49.5 52.7

Sunamgonj 16.73 27.55 30.5 38.1 33.1 36.9

Sylhet 27.49 39.87 41.6 49.4 48.9 53.5

Source: population census, BBS

96

For men, the highest rate was found in Dhaka Zila (69.6%) with the increase of 9.5 percentage points

over the decade followed by Jhalakati (67.4%) and Pirojpur Zila (65.6%). The lowest rate possessed by

Cox’s Bazar (34.0%) followed by Jamalpur Zila (35.5%) with the increase of 8.9 percentage points over

the decade.

In 2011, the highest literacy rate of women was observed for Dhaka (66.6%) followed by Jhalakati

(65.8%) and Barisal zila (60.6%). The lowest literacy rate for women was found in Bandarban (30.9%),

proceeded by Sunamganj (33.1%) and Sherpur (35.7%)

8.04 Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) for Primary School

Gross enrolment rate at primary level for the period 2002-2010 is shown in table 8.04. As per the

definition of GER, students aged beyond the range reading in primary school were counted. It is evident

from the table that gross enrolment rate for girls at national level was 104.5% in 2002, 100.2% in 2010;

while for boys it was 106.8% and 102.4% respectively. In rural area the rate was almost similar as at

national level but in urban area it was slightly low for both boys and girls. It is also noticed from the table

that the rate for them at all levels had been declining slowly.

Table 08.04: Gross enrolment rate for primary school by sex and residence, 20022010

Year

National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

2002 104.5 106.8 105.3 107.7 100.6 102.1

2004 102.3 104.8 103.1 106.2 98.7 99.3

2006 98.6 101.0 98.8 101.6 97.7 99.1

2008 97.9 102.6 97.9 100.8 103.7 106.4

2010 100.2 102.4 101.1 102.2 101.3 102.6

Source: SVRS, 2010, BBS

8.05 Net Enrolment Rate for Primary School

The NER for both girls and boys at all levels is contained in the table 8.05. In 2002 for the girls it was

86.4%, 85.6% and 85.4% respectively at national, rural and urban levels, while for the boys it was

84.6%, 83.7% and 85.6% respectively. The NER for them at all levels varied around the range 80-87%

over the period.

Table 08.05: Net enrolment rate for primary school by sex and residence , 20022010

Year

National Rural Urban

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

2002 86.4 84.6 85.6 83.7 85.4 85.6

2004 86.4 85.1 86.1 84.7 88.6 86.1

2006 85.6 84.4 85.2 83.8 87.1 86.6

2008 81.3 80.3 80.3 79.0 83.3 82.9

2010 87.8 85.6 87.8 85.2 87.9 85.9

Source: SVRS, 2010, BBS

97

8.06 Dropout Rate for Primary School

It is observed from the following table that the drop-out rate for girls in the rural area was 32.4% in 2002

and declined to 12.2% in 2010. For boys it was 37.4% in 2002 declined to 14.8% in 2010. In urban area

the rate for girls was in 33.4 % in 2002 declined to 12.1% in 2010, for boys it was 37.9% in 2002

declined to 14.1 in 2010 respectively.

Table 08.06.1: Dropout rate for primary school cycle by sex and residence 20022010

(In percentage)

Year National Rural Urban

Both Girls Boys Both Girls Boys Both Girls Boys

2002 35.2 32.7 37.6 35.0 32.4 37.4 35.7 33.4 37.9

2004 32.3 30.5 34.0 33.0 31.0 34.8 28.6 27.6 29.6

2006 25.9 24.0 27.7 26.9 24.8 28.9 22.1 21.0 23.2

2008 21.1 19.4 22.7 20.8 18.9 22.6 21.8 20.4 23.0

2010 13.3 12.2 14.4 13.4 12.2 14.8 13.2 12.1 14.1

Source: SVRS, 2010,BBS

Table 08.06.2: Gross and net enrolment rate by sex in secondary school, 2010

Sl. No. Indicators Both Girls Boys

1. Gross enrolment rate (%) 57.00 63.22 51.19

2. Net enrolment rate (%) 39.51 44.02 35.38

3. a) Secondary age population (11-15 years) 16845552 80501 8795408

4. b) All Enrolment of (VI-X) 7465774 3979676 34861

c) Enrolment of (VI-X) of age 11-15 years 6655564 3543850 3111714

Source: BANBEIS-2010

Table 08.06.3: Secondary cycle completion rate, dropout rate and coefficient of efficiency by

sex in secondary school, 2010

Sl. No. Indicators Both Girls Boys

1. Completion rate 42.85 46.17 39.47

2. Dropout rate 57.15 53.83 60.53

3. Survival rate 63.02 67.64 58.26

4. Coefficient of efficiency 50.10 51.30 48.80

Source: BANBEIS-2010

Table 08.06.4: Gross and net enrolment rate in college (11 and 12 class) , 2010

Type of college Number of college

Both Girls Boys

Secondary age population (16-17 years) 6968320 3304464 3663856

Enrolment of all ages (XI-XII) 1381005 666774 714231

Enrolment (16-17 years age) 949288 459951 489337

Gross enrolment rate (%) 19.82 20.18 19.49

Net enrolment rate (%) 13.62 13.92 13.36

Source: BANBEIS-2010

98

Table 08.06.5: Dropout and completion rate in college (XIXII)

Year Class Dropout rate (%) Completion rate (%)

Total Female Total Female

1999 XI-XII 39.8 39.2 60.2 60.8

2000 XI-XII 41.2 40.6 58.8 59.4

2001 XI-XII 42.7 41.5 57.3 58.5

2002 XI-XII 45.8 44.6 54.2 55.4

2003 XI-XII 46.7 45.1 53.3 54.9

2004 XI-XII 44.0 43.6 56.0 56.4

2005 XI-XII 42.9 41.5 57.1 58.5

2009 XI-XII 24.4 23.9 75.6 76.1

Source: BANBEIS-2010

Table 08.06.6: Number of college, teacher and enrolment by type, 2010

Type of college No. of

college

Number of college Number of students

Total Female %

Female

Total Girls % Girls

School & college (college

section)

655 11511 3052 26.51 180400 91640 50.80

Higher secondary college 1179 21206 4311 20.33 288345 151156 52.42

Degree (pass) college 1270 42551 7893 18.55 1003014 480370 47.89

Degree (honors) college 126 5035 1311 26.04 336703 137937 40.97

Masters college 94 6917 2008 29.03 585813 213843 36.50

Total (college education) 3324 87220 18575 21.30 2394275 1074946 44.90

Source: BANBEIS-2010

8.07 Ratio of Female and Male Teachers in Primary School

It is evident from the following table 8.07 that the share of female teachers was 33.90% in 2000, which

was increased to 49 percent in 2010. It is clear from the table that women were in greater number

interested to become teacher as per the government polices giving facilities to women.

Table 08.07: Number of teachers in primary schools by sex and percent of women, 20002010

Year Women Men % of women

2000 53628 104588 33.90

2001 61008 101082 37.64

2002 58997 98239 37.52

2003 61995 100119 38.24

2004 66725 95495 41.13

2005 71740 90344 44.26

2009 Public 99615 83188 45.49

Private 57456 121191 32.16

Total 157071 204379 43.46

2010 Public 124150 88503 58.38

Private 70388 112240 38.54

Total 194528 194538 49.22

Source: BANBEIS-2010

99

8.08 Gross Enrolment Rate, Completion Rate and Dropout Rate at the Secondary Level

Gross enrolment rate, completion rate and dropout rate at the secondary level for the period 2002-2010

are presented in table 8.08. The table shows that the gross enrolment rate for girls was 48.16% in 2002

and 49.44% in 2010, for boys it was 41.28% and 39.64% respectively. At the 2002 and 2005 years, the

completion rate for girls was 19.23% and 16.71% respectively as against 30.87% and 23.46% for boys

showing slow decline over time.

Table 08.08: Gross enrolment rate, completion rate and dropout rate at secondary

level,20022010

Year Gross enrolment rate (%) Completion rate (%) Dropout rate (%)

Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys

2002 48.16 41.28 19.23 30.87 80.77 69.13

2003 48.48 41.96 13.74 19.53 86.26 80.47

2004 48.41 39.58 13.79 20.12 86.21 79.88

2005 47.17 38.62 16.71 23.46 83.29 76.54

2010 49.44 39.64 46.17 39.47 53.83 60.53

Source: BANBEIS-2010

8.09 Education Gender Parity

Ratio of girls to boys attending primary school and secondary school by districts, in Bangladesh-2009 is

shown in table 8.09. Data presented in the table are also on (i) primary school net attendance ratio

(NAR) for girls & boys by districts (ii) gender parity index (GPI) NAR for primary school (iii)

secondary school net attendance ratio for girls and boys (iv) gender parity index for secondary school

NAR. The data for primary and secondary level for districts can be seen for comparison in table 8.09.

Table 08.09: Ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education by district, 2009

District Primary school

net attendance

ratio of girls

Primary School

net attendance

ratio of boys

Gender parity

index for primary

school NAR*

Secondary

school net

attendance ratio

of girls

Secondary

school net

attendance ratio

of boys

Gender parity

index for

primary school

NAR*

Bangladesh 82.5 80.2 1.03 53.0 45.5 1.16

Barguna 91.0 89.7 1.01 62.4 57.4 1.09

Barisal 88.8 84.9 1.05 58.6 49.3 1.19

Bhola 78.1 75.2 1.04 40.6 31.7 1.28

Jhalakati 89.4 87.5 1.02 69.6 59.6 1.17

Patuakhali 88.4 87.5 1.01 61.3 54.3 1.13

Pirojpur 87.9 84.1 1.05 63.4 50.5 1.26

Bandarban 61.8 59.5 1.04 28.4 27.8 1.02

Brahmanbaria 67.9 66.0 1.03 43.3 33.2 1.30

Chandpur 82.6 76.4 1.08 56.5 41.2 1.37

Chittagong 84.6 83.3 1.02 50.4 47.4 1.06

Comilla 83.7 81.1 1.03 53.5 42.6 1.26

Cox,s Bazar 70.6 69.4 1.02 36.4 26.4 1.38

Feni 84.0 83.1 1.01 55.8 50.4 1.11

Khagrachhari 79.9 78.9 1.01 42.9 40.5 1.06

Lakshmipur 77.2 79.5 0.97 48.0 37.6 1.28

Noakhali 77.1 76.5 1.01 52.5 45.3 1.16

Rangamati 75.7 74.3 1.02 41.2 42.0 0.98

100

District Primary school

net attendance

ratio of girls

Primary School

net attendance

ratio of boys

Gender parity

index for primary

school NAR*

Secondary

school net

attendance ratio

of girls

Secondary

school net

attendance ratio

of boys

Gender parity

index for

primary school

NAR*

Dhaka 83.2 85.0 0.98 48.6 49.1 0.99

Faridpur 86.0 81.3 1.06 55.4 42.2 1.31

Gazipur 90.7 90.9 1.00 61.3 59.5 1.03

Gopalgonj 85.3 85.4 1.00 54.6 49.6 1.10

Jamalpur 84.5 81.3 1.04 50.6 49.8 1.02

Kisroregonj 80.4 77.7 1.03 46.8 35.6 1.31

Madaripur 82.3 81.2 1.01 48.2 37.2 1.30

Manikgonj 83.1 81.8 1.02 55.8 52.9 1.05

Munshigonj 90.0 87.4 1.03 58.7 46.2 1.27

Mymensingh 83.0 79.8 1.04 50.3 43.5 1.16

Narayangonj 83.9 79.6 1.05 49.9 40.1 1.24

Narsindgdi 79.1 75.0 1.05 55.3 39.6 1.40

Netrokona 78.0 76.4 1.02 44.5 35.5 1.25

Rajbari 84.1 81.0 1.04 60.8 49.8 1.22

Shariatpur 85.0 82.2 1.03 45.5 33.9 1.34

Sherpur 80.5 74.8 1.08 46.3 37.3 1.24

Tangail 86.6 84.1 1.03 57.3 54.4 1.05

Bagerhat 90.1 88.8 1.01 63.1 54.2 1.16

Chuadanga 81.3 80.6 1.01 55.9 47.4 1.18

Jessore 91.2 90.0 1.01 67.6 56.1 1.20

Jhenaidah 90.4 86.3 1.05 65.4 55.6 1.18

Khulna 89.3 85.8 1.04 64.2 57.2 1.12

Kushtia 84.0 80.3 1.05 60.3 47.2 1.28

Magura 90.2 87.5 1.03 65.1 57.0 1.14

Meherpur 93.5 88.7 1.05 57.7 46.4 1.24

Narail 89.6 89.2 1.00 66.6 53.1 1.25

Satkhira 84.5 83.0 1.02 62.6 50.0 1.25

Bogra 82.4 79.2 1.04 57.3 51.1 1.12

Dinajpur 90.1 86.7 1.04 65.2 51.3 1.27

Gaibandha 81.3 77.9 1.04 51.7 47.1 1.10

Joypurhat 91.6 87.0 1.05 65.2 61.0 1.07

Kurigram 79.2 76.7 1.03 51.4 42.2 1.22

Lalmonirhat 83.8 81.2 1.03 60.4 47.9 1.26

Naogaon 90.3 86.4 1.05 63.5 53.8 1.18

Natore 71.8 70.8 1.01 54.4 47.3 1.15

Nawabgonj 78.7 74.1 1.06 47.2 38.4 1.23

Nilphamari 89.3 83.4 1.07 53.8 40.4 1.33

Pabna 85.2 81.8 1.04 57.4 49.1 1.17

Panchagarh 85.9 78.2 1.10 61.1 52.0 1.18

Rajshahi 86.5 83.0 1.04 65.9 57.0 1.16

Rangpur 83.4 79.4 1.05 59.4 48.7 1.22

Sirajgonj 71.6 71.9 1.00 48.7 41.1 1.18

Thakurgaon 86.6 83.7 1.03 55.9 50.8 1.10

Habiganj 69.5 68.4 1.02 38.4 29.1 1.32

Maulvibazar 83.1 79.5 1.05 44.6 38.2 1.17

Sunamganj 67.8 65.3 1.04 31.3 27.1 1.15

Sylhet 81.3 79.3 1.03 44.0 29.6 1.49

National 82.5 80.2 1.05 53.0 45.5 1.16

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 Volume-I: Technical Report

101

8.10 Ratio of Women and Men Teachers and Students in Secondary School

The table 8.10 gives an apparent picture of teachers and students in secondary schools by sex and

women–men ratio over the period 2002-2010. It is evident from the table that women-men ratio of

secondary school teachers was 23.7% in 2002 and increased to 30.0% in 2010 showing on increase by

6.3 percentage points.

Table 08.10: Number of teachers and students by sex in secondary school and their ratio,

20012010

Year Teacher Student (in 000)

Women Men Ratio of

women to

men

Girls Boys Ratio of girls

to boys

2002 38902 164189 23.7 3659 3661 99.9

2004 47255 167418 28.2 3925 3578 109.7

2006 48615 167677 30.0 3980 3486 114.1

2008 46788 162708 34.8 3661 3159 115.9

2010 50334 167677 30.0 3980 3486 114.1

Source: Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh-2010

BANBEIS-2010, BBS

8.11 Performance of Girls Student in the Secondary Level

Data on performance of girls student in the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination by sex for

the period 2004-2010 can be seen in table 8.11.1 It is clear from the table the passing rate at secondary

level for girls was 45.98% in 2004 against total students 48.03%. These rates rose to 76.36% and 78.19%

respectively in 2010.

Table 08.11.1: Performance of girls student in the SSC examination, 20042010

Year No. of appeared No. of passed % of pass

Total Girls Total Girls Total Girls

2004 756387 341594 363270 157058 48.03 45.98

2006 784815 367970 466732 210909 59.47 57.32

2008 743609 361545 526576 249104 70.81 68.90

2010 912577 453779 713560 346994 78.19 76.36

Source: BANBEIS-2010

Table 08.11.2: Performance of girls student in SSC (vocational) examination, 20042010

Year No. of appeared No. of passed % of pass

Total Girls Total Girls Total Girls

2004 31452 9778 16090 4745 51.16 48.53

2006 48309 367970 466732 210909 59.47 57.32

2008 82375 361545 526576 249104 70.81 68.90

2010 625577 453779 713560 346994 78.19 76.36

Source: BANBEIS-2010

102

8.12 Number of Teachers and Students of Colleges

Number of teachers and students in govt. and non govt. colleges by sex for the period 2005-2010 are

shown in table 8.12. In 2005, the total number of teachers in govt. colleges were 10,962 of them 22.54%

were women. The number of students was 5,09,137, among them 39.539% were girls. On the other hand,

in private colleges, teachers were 79,439 of them 18.79% were women. The students were 8,58,109 of

them 42.89% were girls. It is clear from the table that teachers in govt. colleges were higher than those in

private colleges. On the other hand, the number of students was higher in private colleges than those in

govt. colleges. In 2010, the female teachers in public colleges were 23 percent and female students 40

percent. It can also be seen from the table that percentage of women teachers and students both in govt.

colleges and private colleges had increased over time.

Table 08.12: Number of teachers and students of college by type & sex, 2005,2009 and 2010.

Year

Type of

college

Teachers Students

Total Women Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

girls

2005

Public 10962 2471 8491 22.54 509137 201286 307851 39.53

Private 79439 14929 64510 18.79 858109 368051 490058 42.89

2009

Public 10246 2341 7905 22.85 849165 263290 485875 42.78

Private 76045 14844 61201 19.52 1296715 592760 703955 45.71

Total 86291 17185 69106 19.92 2145880 956050 1189830 44.55

2010

Public 9900 2310 7590 23.33 889109 358523 530586 40.32

Private 77320 16265 61055 21.04 1505166 716423 788743 47.60

Total 87220 18575 68645 21.30 2394275 1074946 1319329 44.90

Source: Bangladesh Educational Statistics-2010, BANBEIS

8.13 Performance of Girls Student in the HSC Examination

Number and percentage of girls in this Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) examination is shown

in table 8.13. It is observed that 2,77,946 girls out of total 5,80,623 students appeared in the examination.

The passing rate of girls was 71.88% and in the total students 71.82% in 2010.

Table 08.13: Performance of girls student in the HSC examination, 20042010

Year No. of appeared No. of passed % of pass

Total Girls Total Girls Total Girls

2004 483481 204050 230787 95455 47.73 46.78

2006 412024 180969 263358 114949 63.92 63.52

2008 496139 231387 371381 172389 74.85 74.50

2010 580623 277946 416987 199797 71.82 71.88

Source: BANBEIS-2010

It is also evident from the table that the number of girls out of total students had decreased to 180969 in

2006. Trend of passing rates both for total and girls had been increasing over time.

8.14 Primary Training Institute (PTI), Teachers and Trainees

Number of Primary Training Institute (PTI), teachers and trainees 2004-2010 can be seen in table 8.14.

Total number of primary training institute in public sector was 54 with total number of teachers and

trainees were 538 and 11,495 respectively in 2004. In 2005, the number of teachers were decreased to

103

517 and number of trainees increased to 13,025. The ratio of women teachers was 33.45% and 24.72%

respectively in 2004 and 2010 and the corresponding rates of girls’ trainees were 41.30 percent and 64.64

percent respectively.

Table 08.14: Number of PTI, teachers, and trainees by sex, 20042010

Year No of

institute

Teachers Trainees

Total Women Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

girls

2004 54 538 180 358 33.45 11495 4748 6747 41.30

2005 54 517 179 338 35.30 13025 5176 7849 39.74

2010 54 538 133 405 24.72 11344 7333 4011 64.64

Source: BANBES- 2006, 2010

8.15 Teachers Training College (TTC), Teachers and Students

Number of Teachers Training College (TTC) by type, teachers and students by sex and type of training

college are exhibited in table 8.15. Among 903 teachers, 30.12% were women teacher and among 2,841

students, 41.98% were girls in 2004. Out of 1,235 teachers 23.81 percent were women, which shows a

significant decrease of 6.31 percentage points where girl students also decreased by 2.12 percentage

points. In 2005, the percentage of female teachers was 23.81 percent, which increased to 27.77 % in

2010.

Table 08.15: Number of TTC, teachers and students by sex, 20042010

Year Type of

training

colleges

No. of

colleg

e

Teachers Students

Total Women Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

Girls

2004 Public 11 201 60 141 29.85 5506 2854 2652 51.83

Private 54 702 212 490 30.20 7335 2537 4798 34.59

Total 65 903 272 631 30.12 2841 5391 7450 41.98

2005 Public 14 247 74 173 29.96 6518 2885 3633 44.26

Private 85 988 220 768 22.27 11638 4352 7286 37.39

Total 99 1235 294 941 23.81 18156 7237 10919 39.86

2010 Public 36 1990 528 1462 26.53 34098 19380 14718 56.84

Private 92 830 255 768 30.72 9551 3025 6526 31.67

Total 128 2820 783 783 27.77 43649 22405 21244 51.33

Source: BANBES , 2010

8.16 Physical Education College, Teachers and Students

Number of Physical Education College, teachers and students by sex 2004-2005 and 2010 are shown in

table 8.16. Women teachers were 11.79% in 2010. Number of teachers increased to 276 but the

percentage share of women decreased to 10.51% in 2005. Number of students was 3,402 with 30.69%

girls in 2005.

104

Table 08.16: Number of Physical Education College, teachers and students by sex, 20042010

Year Type of

college

No. of

college

Teachers Students

Total Wome

n

Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

girls

2004 Public 4 46 7 39 15.22 668 142 526 21.26

Private 12 164 20 144 12.20 2734 902 1832 32.99

Total 16 210 27 183 12.86 3402 1044 2358 30.69

2005 Public 4 49 7 42 14.29 668 142 526 21.26

Private 23 227 22 205 09.69 2734 902 1832 32.99

Total 27 276 29 247 10.51 3402 1044 2358 30.69

2010 Public 4 46 8 38 17.39 684 149 535 21.78

Private 23 217 23 194 10.60 3520 396 3124 11.25

Total 27 263 31 232 11.79 4204 545 3659 12.96

Source: BANBEIS-2006 and 2010

8.17 Teachers and Students of Universities

It is seen from the table 8.17 that in Govt. University there were 6,462 teachers with 15.08% female

teachers in 2004. Among the students, about 25 percent were girls in the same year. In private

University, there were 4,815 teachers with 16.57% female teachers and among the students, 22.80

percent were girls in 2004. But in 2005 slight change is observed in number and percentage share of

females in both teachers and students. In Govt. University, teachers were 6,921 with 15.67% women.

Similarly, in private University there were a total of 5,638 teachers with 14.15% women and 88,669

students with 23.2% girls. In 2009, the numbers of teachers in govt. universities were 9163 and that of

private were 5710. The percentage of women teacher was 18.07% in govt. universities and 29.79% in

private universities. The numbers of boys students were 180953 and 151814 respectively in govt. and

private universities in 2009 and the ratio of girl students was 31.18% and 24.45 % respectively.

Table 08.17: Number of teachers and students by type of universities and sex, 20042009

Year Type of

universities

Teachers Students

Total Women Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

girls

2004

Govt. 6462 975 5487 15.08 112327 27953 84374 24.8

Private 4815 798 4017 16.57 62856 14329 48527 22.8

2005

Govt. 6921 1085 5836 15.67 116397 29475 86922 25.3

Private 5638 798 4840 14.15 88669 20621 68048 23.2

2006

Govt. 7905 1435 6470 18.15 124129 45408 78721 36.6

Private NA NA NA 124237 30280 93957 2.4

2007 Govt. 8068 1455 6613 18.03 139983 52917 87066 37.8

Private NA NA NA 17040 40067 23026 23.5

2009 Govt. 9163 1656 6507 18.07 262941 81988 180953 31.18

Private 5710 1701 4009 29.79 200939 49125 151814 24.45

Source: Bangladesh Educational statistics-2006, Annual Report-2009, University Grants Commission (U.G.C.)

105

8.18 Teachers and Students of Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET)

Number of teachers and students in the Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology by sex for

2000-2010 can be seen in table 8.18. Table shows that in 2000, there were 57 women teachers and 443

men teachers that are 129 women teachers per 1000 men teachers. Among students girls were

respectively 945 and 6270 with women ratio 15.1% ie. 151 female students per 1000 male students.

In 2002, number of both women and men teachers decreased but the number of students increased to

1137 for girls and 6456 boys it showing girls-boys ratio 17.6 i.e 176 girls students per 1000 boys

students. In 2010 number of both women and men teachers increased to 128 and 521 respectively with

the ratio of 24.6% . Number of students both girls and boys increased to 1468 and 6199 respectively

showing a ratio of 23.7 i.e. 237 girls students per 1000 boys. There was a significant increase of female

teachers and students from 2000 to 2010. The share of female teachers was about a quarter to the total

in 2010 and same trend found in case of female students.

Table 08.18: Number of teacher and students in the Bangladesh University of Engineering &

Technology by sex, 20002010

Year Teachers Students

Women Men Ratio of women

to men

Girls Boys Ratio of girls to

boys

2000 57 443 12.9 945 6270 15.1

2002 65 414 15.7 1137 6456 17.6

2004 67 440 15.2 1222 6669 18.3

2006 77 442 17.4 1382 6665 20.7

2009 100 478 20.9 1455 6088 23.9

2010 128 521 24.6 1468 6199 23.7

Source: Statistical year book of Bangladesh-2010 BBS and Annual Report 2010, UGC

8.19 Teachers and Students in the Medical College

Table 8.19 shows the number of teacher and students in the medical college by sex and by type of

medical college for 2004 to 2010. It is apparent from the table that there were 1215 teachers with

19.75% women in public medical colleges in 2004. In 2010, the number of teachers in public and private

medical college was 1312 and 1202 respectively and the ratio of women was 18.60% and 10.23%

respectively. The number of student in public medical colleges was 11736 whereas, for private medical

college was 7660. The ratio of girls was 40.08% and 34.24% respectively in public and private medical

college.

Table 08.19: Number of teachers and students in the medical college by sex, 20042009

Year

Type of

medical

college

Teacher Students

Total Women Men % of

women

Total Girls Boys % of

girls

2004

Public 1215 240 975 19.75 11602 4675 6927 40.29

Private 740 123 617 16.62 4992 2195 2797 43.97

2005

Public 1218 240 970 19.70 11731 4692 7039 40.00

Private 1037 123 914 11.86 6954 2384 4570 34.28

2010

Public 1312 244 968 18.60 11736 4704 7032 40.08

Private 1202 123 1079 10.23 7660 2623 5037 34.24

Source: BANBES-2010

106

8.20 Teachers and Students in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University

Number of teachers and students in the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) by

sex for 2006-2010 can be seen in table 8.20. Table shows that in 2006 there were 99 women teachers

and 328 men teachers. Among teachers, women-men ratio was 30.2%. Among students, girls and boys

were respectively 320 and 705 with their ratio 45.4%. In 2007, there were 82 women teachers and 291

men teachers. In 2010 number of teachers, both women and men increased and they were 99 and 322

respectively. The ratio of women to men was 28.2%. Among students, girls and boys were 750 and 956

respectively showing ratio 55.0%, which was same as the ratio of 2007.

Table 08.20: Number of teachers and students in the BSMMU by sex, 20062010

Year Teachers Students

Women Men Ratio of women to

men

Girls Boys Ratio of girls

to boys

2006 99 328 30.2 320 705 45.4

2007 82 291 28.2 338 614 55.0

2009 77 273 30.2 289 466 45.4

2010 99 322 28.2 750 956 55.0

Source: Annual Report 2006, 2007 and 2010, UGC

8.21 Teachers and Students in the Agricultural University

In 2002, the number of women teachers was 30, whereas number of men teachers was 438 showing

6.8% women to men ratio ie 68 women teachers per 1000 men teachers. At the same time girls’ students

in organized to 1143 with 25.7 girls to boys ratio ie 257 girls students per 1000 boys students.

Table 08.21: Number of teachers and students in the Agricultural University by sex, 20012010

Year Teachers Students

Women Men Ratio of

women to men

Girls Boys Ratio of

girls to boys

2002 30 438 6.8 1143 4453 25.7

2004 44 474 9.2 847 3120 27.1

2006 52 493 8.8 1097 3430 31.1

2009 57 471 12.1 1559 3208 48.6

2010 59 464 12.7 1741 3147 59.3

Source: Statistical Yearbook, 2010, BBS and Annual Report 2004-09, UGC

In 2010 the number of women teachers was 59 where the number of men teachers was 464 showing

12.7% women to men ratio i.e. 127 women teachers per 1000 men teachers. In case of students, number

of girls increased to 1741 and boys decreased to 3147 showing 59.3 ratio of girls to boys i.e. 593 girls

students per 1000 boys. Enrolment of girls’ students in the agricultural universities is being increased

over the period.

107

CHAPTER 9

Income, Expenditure and Poverty

This chapter deals with income, expenditure and poverty of the household disaggregated by sex. The

indicators that have been included are poverty incidence by sex, poverty incidence of women headed

household by main source of income, poverty incidence of women headed household by level of

education, average number of earners per household by sex, income and expenditure of women headed

household, access to credit by women, monthly expenditure on education for men and women in the

household etc. Unless women’s economic empowerment is strengthened we will not be able to eliminate

poverty. In the 21st century, women enjoy more freedom and power than over before. However, they are

still in far behind the men in some aspects of life.

9.01 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household

It may be mentioned that women headed household is defined by the households where the household

head is a woman. A woman may be head of a household if the husband works outside the house or she

may be head of the household if she is a widowed/divorced or separated and she is responsible for

managing a family.

The incidence of poverty by sex of head of household has been presented in table 9.01. It is revealed

from the table that the poverty by head count ratio of women headed household were lower than men

headed household. It may happened due to their husband working in abroad. However, in 2010, the

poverty incidence of women headed household is much lower than the men headed household. The

difference was 5.5 percentage points in 2010 compared to 1.8 percentage point in 2000.

Table 9.01: Incidence of poverty by sex of head of household, 2000, 2005 and 2010

Residence 2010 2005 2000

Women

headed

Men

headed

Women

headed

Men

headed

Women

headed

Men

headed

National 26.6 32.1 29.5 40.8 47.2 49.0

Rural 29.3 35.9 31.0 44.9 50.6 52.5

Urban 17.5 21.7 24.4 28.7 37.1 35.1

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2005 and 2010, BBS

9.02 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household by Main Source of Income

The poverty incidence of women headed household by main source of household income obtained from

HIES-2010 has been presented in table 9.02. It is observed from the table that, in the aggregate level, the

poverty incidence was the highest (44.2%) for households whose household income was mainly from

service working followed by those households with main income source being transport labouring

(41.0%) and then who are employed in agriculture (37.0%).

108

Table 09.02: Incidence of poverty by occupation of head of households, 2010

Occupation Poverty incidence

Women headed Men headed Total

Professional 22.9 19.4 19.5

Administrative and management workers 0.0 0.8 0.8

Clerical related works 11.5 17.8 17.7

Sales workers 35.1 22.2 22.3

Service workers 56.1 42.6 44.2

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 35.8 37.0 37.0

Production and Transport labourers 33.1 41.2 41.0

Head not working 23.2 25.3 24.2

Total 26.7 32.1 31.5

Source: HIES 2010, BBS

9.03 Poverty Incidence of Women Headed Household by Level of Education

Poverty incidence of women headed household by level of education obtained from HIES-2010

has been presented in table 9.03. It is seen from the table that the poverty incidence is negatively

correlated with education. The poverty incidence decreased with the increase of education level.

The poverty incidence of women headed household with never read category was as high as

35.2% compared to only 1.9% for those households with education level SSC+. Poverty

incidence of rural and urban households also follows the same pattern that the incidence

decreases with increase of education level.

Table 09.03: Incidence of poverty by level of education of head of households, 2010

Level of education Poverty incidence

Women headed Men headed Total

Never read 35.2 43.9 42.8

Class I-V 18.4 37.2 35.7

Class VI-IX 13.8 23.6 22.6

SSC /HSC or equivalent 1.9 7.8 7.5

Total 26.7 32.1 31.5

Source: HIES, 2010, BBS

9.04 Household Income by Number of Members and Earners

Household Income by number of members and number of earners by sex has been presented in table

9.04.1 It is observed from the table that the number of women earners is comparatively high in lower

income and higher income groups. In 2005 the average number of women earners was 0.26, 0.21 and

0.25 in the 1st three-income level households with the average lower income. The income of these three

households was Tk. 480.45, Tk. 880.19 and Tk. 1124.48 respectively and in 2010 the average number of

women earners was 0.24, 0.23 and 0.15 in the 1st three-income households with the average lower

income. The income of these three categories households was Tk. 981.81, Tk. 1758.07 and Tk. 2252.71

respectively.

109

Table 09.04.1: Average number of members and earners and monthly income per

household by sex, 2005 and 2010

Monthly income

groups (in Tk.)

Average no. of members Average no. of

earners

Average monthly

income per

Women Men Women Men household (Tk)

2005

<750 1.52 1.13 0.26 0.51 480.45

750-999 1.59 1.33 0.21 0.61 880.19

1000-1249 1.73 1.42 0.25 0.69 1124.48

1250-1499 1.91 1.61 0.19 0.81 1375.82

1500-1999 1.99 1.88 0.11 0.96 1754.87

2000-2499 2.14 2.00 0.12 1.04 2237.00

2500-2999 2.25 2.13 0.13 1.08 2738.15

3000-3999 2.23 2.33 0.12 1.19 3463.65

4000-4999 2.37 2.48 0.10 1.30 4457.73

5000-5999 2.44 2.57 0.12 1.35 5438.93

6000-6999 2.55 2.68 0.14 1.46 6454.48

7000-7999 2.61 2.80 0.08 1.49 7465.17

8000-8999 2.54 2.70 0.15 1.47 8460.07

9000-9999 2.75 2.81 0.12 1.51 9443.81

10000-12499 2.74 2.80 0.13 1.40 11065.10

12500-14999 3.02 3.10 0.18 1.59 13535.38

15000-17499 2.96 3.14 0.18 1.70 16000.96

17500-19999 2.99 3.38 0.20 1.63 18624.03

20000+ 3.37 3.51 0.30 1.77 41626.35

All groups 2.41 2.44 0.14 1.26 7203.17

2010

<1500 1.48 0.84 0.24 0.30 981.81

1500-1999 1.76 1.32 0.23 0.61 1758.07

2000-2499 1.91 1.68 0.15 0.81 2252.71

2500-2999 1.92 1.84 0.16 0.87 2754.59

3000-3999 2.01 1.93 0.12 0.95 3490.23

4000-4999 2.15 2.00 0.13 1.01 4497.96

5000-5999 2.13 2.11 0.14 1.09 5459.85

6000-5999 2.20 2.22 0.13 1.18 6478.93

7000-6999 2.27 2.21 0.16 1.19 7472.24

8000-7999 2.36 2.38 0.16 1.20 8455.53

9000-8999 2.36 2.51 0.15 1.28 9489.98

10000-12499 2.38 2.39 0.15 1.28 11158.30

12500-14999 2.41 2.50 0.13 1.36 13630.33

15000-17499 2.45 2.50 0.15 1.36 16179.75

17500-19999 2.53 2.65 0.15 1.46 18627.74

20000-24999 2.60 2.70 0.16 1.44 22089.56

25000-29999 2.77 2.80 0.16 1.46 27275.93

30000-34999 2.73 2.70 0.12 1.40 32146.44

35000+ 2.96 2.88 0.26 1.44 62799.55

All groups 2.27 2.23 0.15 1.15 11479.47

Source: Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

110

Table 09.04.2: Average number of members and earners per household, average monthly

income per household by sex and residence, 2010

Residence Average no. of members

per household

Average no. of earners per

household

Average

monthly

income per

earner

Average

monthly

expenditure

earner

Both Men Women Both Men Women

Total 4.50 2.23 2.27 1.31 1.15 0.16 8795 8540

Rural 4.53 2.24 2.29 1.27 1.15 0.12 7592 7563

Urban 4.41 2.20 2.20 1.40 1.17 0.23 11778 11103

Source: Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

In 2010, average the number of earners per household was found to be 1.31 at national level, 1.27 in rural

and 1.40 in urban area. Average monthly income per earner was found to be Tk. 8,795 for the country as

a whole. In rural area, this was Tk. 7,592 and in urban Tk. 11,778 in 2010.

Table 09.04.3: Average monthly household income by head of household by sex, 2010

Residence Head of household

Women Men Both

2005

National 6519 7281 7203

Rural - - 6095

Urban - - 10463

2010

National 9725 11763 11479

Rural 8413 9864 9648

Urban 14484 16726 16474

Source: Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, BBS

Table.9.04.3: provides average monthly income per household. Average monthly income per household

at current price was estimated at Tk. 11479 at the national level in 2010. This was Tk. 7203 in 2005.In

2010, the monthly household income increased by 59.36% compared with 2005

9.05 Intake of Food

Average quantity (grams) per capita per day intake of food is presented in table 9.05. It is observed from

the table that average intake was 947.8 in 2005 which is increased by 10 % to 1000.0 in 2010.

Table 09.05: Average per capita per day food intake (grams), 2010

Residence Head of household

Both Women Men

2010

National 1000.0 1000.5 998.6

Rural 1000.5 1001.9 1004.8

Urban 985.5 995.7 981.8

2005

National 947.8 - -

Rural 946.3 - -

Urban 952.1 - -

Source: Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

111

In 2010, average quantity of food items consumed was estimated at 1000.0 grams per capita per day at

the national level. It was 1000.0, 1000.5 and 985.5 grams in national, rural and urban respectively. It

appears that, per capita per day quantity food intake by rural women is less than men intake food, in

urban it is opposite i.e. women intake food is more than men.

9.06 Income and Expenditure of Household

Average monthly income and expenditure per household by income groups and by women and men

headed household has been presented in table-9.06. It is observed from the table that average monthly

household income of the men headed household was Tk.7281 in 2005 compared to Tk.6519 for the

women headed household. The income of the men headed household was 11.7% higher than the women

headed household. Similarly, the average monthly expenditure of the women headed household was Tk.

5262 as against Tk. 6233 for the men headed household. The expenditure of the men headed household

was 18.5% higher than women headed household.

The average household income of women headed household in 2010 was Tk. 9725 as against 11763 for

the men headed household. The income of men headed household was 21.0% higher than women headed

household. The expenditure of women headed household it was 8874 in 2010 compared to Tk.11346 for

men headed household. The expenditure of men headed household was 27.8% higher than women

headed household. It is noted that income and expenditure of the men headed household was higher than

women headed household in all monthly income groups.

Table 09.06: Average monthly income of women and men headed households by monthly

per capita income groups, 2005 and 2010

Monthly income

groups (in Tk.)

Average monthly income per

household (Tk.)

Average monthly expenditure per

household (Tk.)

Women headed Men headed Women headed Men headed

2005

<750 499 675 0 698

750-999 708 1327 1221 1484

1000-1249 842 1620 1020 1525

1250-1499 1203 1724 1351 1771

1500-1999 1075 2019 1411 2166

2000-2499 1488 2289 1588 2323

2500-2999 1368 2515 1605 2698

3000-3999 1832 2831 2142 3009

4000-4999 2115 3222 2339 3412

5000-5999 2524 3777 2167 3897

6000-6999 2736 4201 2970 4378

7000-7999 2543 4784 3179 4784

8000-8999 3434 5423 3833 5572

9000-9999 5283 6840 4984 6873

10000-12499 6448 8438 6209 8262

12500-14999 8635 10775 8092 10766

15000-17499 10755 12987 9766 12601

17500-19999 11834 15637 9775 13953

20000+ 29070 33463 23464 24127

All groups 6519 7281 5262 6233

112

Monthly income

groups (in Tk.)

Average monthly income per

household (Tk.)

Average monthly expenditure per

household (Tk.)

Women headed Men headed Women headed Men headed

2010

<1500 1145 2040 4859 7732

1500-1999 1449 2936 4663 7673

2000-2499 2012 3305 5454 7283

2500-2999 2771 3677 5835 7430

3000-3999 3145 4242 5925 7492

4000-4999 2932 4741 5099 8406

5000-5999 3884 5341 7214 8123

6000-5999 4483 6550 6151 8822

7000-6999 6084 7473 7566 9078

8000-7999 6112 8573 7622 9633

9000-8999 7953 10235 8435 10798

10000-12499 9362 12478 9069 12270

12500-14999 12386 14299 10456 12485

15000-17499 13113 16304 10541 13981

17500-19999 14586 18039 12336 14843

20000-24999 16014 21414 11594 16775

25000-29999 19046 24445 15387 18274

30000-34999 21678 27448 15267 19792

35000+ 38447 50535 17286 26930

All groups 9725 11763 8874 11346

Source: Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2005 and 2010, BBS

9.07 Per Capita Income and Expenditure of the Women Headed Household

It is observed from the table 9.07 that per capita income of women headed household decreased in 2004

compared to 1999. In 1999 the per capita income of women headed household was Tk. 1303 which

decreased to Tk. 1109 in 2004. Per capita expenditure also decreased for women headed household in

2004 compared to 1999. However, per capita income of women headed household increased in 2010. It

was Tk. 2703 at the national level and Tk. 2233 and Tk. 3984 at the rural and urban areas. The

corresponding income was Tk. 1109, Tk. 893 and Tk. 1934 in 2004. Almost similar trend was observed

in expenditure between 2004 and 2010.

The per capita income and expenditure of poor and non-poor households in 1999 and 2004 has also been

presented by residence here. It is seen that, the income of poor household decreased in the national level

as well as in the rural areas but increased slightly in the urban area. On the other hand, expenditure of the

household increased in 2004 compared to 1999.

113

Table 09.07: Monthly per capita income and expenditure of the women headed household

by residence, 1999,2004 and 2010

Survey year Residence Per capita income of women headed

household (Tk.)

Per capita expenditure of women

headed household (Tk.)

All Poor Non poor All Poor Non poor

1999 National 1303 622 1877 909 441 1303

Rural 1092 575 1533 811 412 1150

Urban 2351 875 3454 1401 594 2004

2004 National 1109 615 1459 972 480 1322

Rural 893 546 1149 810 443 1080

Urban 1934 907 2567 1594 637 2186

2010 National 2703 1289 3267 2565 1242 3093

Rural 2233 1224 2707 2177 1194 2638

Urban 3984 1584 4557 3623 1461 4140

Source: Poverty Monitoring Survey 2004, BBS and Household Income and Expenditure survey 2010, BBS

In 2010, per capita income of poor women household was Tk. 1289 compared to Tk. 3267 for the nonpoor

women headed household. Per capita expenditure of poor women headed household was Tk. 1242

compared to Tk. 3093 for the non-poor households. The difference is also well pronounced in the rural

and urban areas.

9.08 Annual Education Expenditure

Expenditure incurred by households and the share of men and women in educational expenditure has

been presented in table 9.08. It is observed from the table that average annual expenditure per household

on education stands at Tk. 705 in 2005. It was Tk. 568 for the rural area and Tk. 1108 for the urban area.

As regards percent of education expenditure incurred for women and men it is observed that at the

national level 43.8% incurred for women compared to 56.2% for men. Such percentage was 42.0% for

women and 58.0% for men in the rural area and 46.7% for women and 53.5% for men in the urban area.

In 2010 the educational expenditure at the national level stands at Tk. 1599, it was Tk. 982 for rural and

Tk. 3283 for the urban areas. The percentage of expenditure incurred by women at national level was

43.8% in 2005 which increased to 46.6 % in 2010. In rural area it was 41.3% and in the urban area it was

51.1%.

Table 09.08: Per household and per capita annual expenditure on education by sex and

residence, 2005 and 2010

Residence Per household expenditure on

education ( Tk.)

Percent of expenditure incurred by sex

Women Men

2005

National 705.0 43.8 56.2

Rural 568.0 42.0 58.0

Urban 1108.0 46.7 53.5

2010

National 1599 46.6 53.5

Rural 982 41.3 58.7

Urban 3283 51.1 48.9

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2010, BBS

114

9.09 Type of Education Expenditure Incurred by Sex and Residence

It is noticed from the table 9.09 that for women and men, the highest percentage of expenditure was

incurred for private tuition fees. Such percentage had increased from 14.23% for women in 2005 to

15.37% in 2010 and 16.94% for men in 2005 which decreased to 16.26 % in the same time. This

proportion was 17.27% for women in 2005 and 18.78% in 2010, but for men 18.87% in 2005 decreased

to 16.72% in 2010 in the urban area. In the rural area, the highest percentage of expenditure was incurred

for books, papers, pens and others. Such percentage was 13.03% for women and 15.85% for men in 2005

while it was decreased to 10.50.% for women and 12.07% for men in 2010.

Table 09.09: Percentage distribution of monthly educational expenditure by types of

expenditure, sex and residence, 2005 and 2010

Type of expenditure National Urban Rural

Women Men Women Men Women Men

2005

Total 44.27 55.73 46.72 53.28 42.16 57.48

Tuition fees 8.1 10.42 10.70 12.54 5.92 8.61

Private tuition fees 14.23 16.94 17.27 18.87 11.63 15.29

Books, papers, pens & others 10.74 12.54 8.07 8.67 13.03 15.85

Hostel charge 2.13 4.91 2.16 3.79 2.10 5.87

Other charges 9.04 10.92 8.51 9.41 9.48 12.22

2010

Total 46.55 53.45 51.08 48.92 41.26 58.74

Tuition fees 8.38 9.51 11.28 10.36 4.91 8.52

Private tuition fees 15.37 16.26 18.78 16.72 11.40 15.72

Books, papers, pens & others 8.57 9.39 6.91 7.08 10.50 12.07

Hostel charge 1.74 4.51 0.91 1.84 2.71 7.61

Other charges 12.53 13.79 13.21 12.92 11.74 14.82

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

9.10 Income and Expenditure of the Households who Received Remittance

In 2010, the average monthly household income of women headed household who received remittances

Tk.16639 who did not receive remittance where estimated at Tk.6521 in table 9.10.1. Per capita income

of the women headed household who received remittance presented in table 9.10.2. It is observed from

the table that per capita income of women headed household who received remittance was estimated at

Tk.4299 against Tk.2057 for not received remittance.

Table 09.10.1: Average household income by sex of the head of households received

remittance, 2010

Remittance status Total Rural Urban

Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total

Received remittance 16639 21718 19387 15684 20636 19387 19428 26528 22688

Not received 6521 11124 10640 5283 9078 10640 11534 16318 15954

Total 9725 11763 11479 8413 9864 11479 14484 16726 16475

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

115

Table 09.10.2: Per capita income by sex of head of household whose sources of income from

remittance, 2010

Remittance status Total Rural Urban

Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total

Received remittance 4299 3994 4109 3976 3823 3878 5317 4728 4984

Not received 2057 2405 2379 1705 1937 1918 3334 3651 3632

Total 2867 2517 2553 2509 2083 2130 4101 3704 3740

Source: Household Income & Expenditure Survey, 2010, BBS

The following table 9.10.3 shows per capita expenditure of women and men headed households whose

main sources of income from remittance. It is observed from the table that per capita expenditure of

women household who received remittance was estimated at Tk. 3327 against Tk. 2298 for ‘not received

remittance’.

Table 09.10.3: Per capita expenditure by sex of head of household whose sources of income

from remittance, 2010

Remittance status Total Rural Urban

Women Men Total Women Men Total Women Men Total

Received remittance 3327 3080 3173 2885 2873 2877 4721 3965 4293

Not received 2298 2424 2415 2033 2031 2031 3259 3472 3459

Total 2670 2470 2491 2334 2096 2122 3824 3496 3526

Source: Household Income and Expenditure Survey -2010, BBS

9.11 Access to Credit by the Grameen Bank

It may be mentioned that Grameen Bank is the only bank, which provides credit to women folk in larger

proportion compared to other nationalized and private banks. The loan delivery of Grameen Bank has

been presented in table 9.11.1 It is observed that as many as 8.33 million loan sanctioned to women

compared to 0.28 million to men by Grameen Bank in 2010. Such volume of loan was 6.10 million for

women compared to 0.27 million for men in 2007. The average amount of loan for women was Tk.

11063 in 2010 for women compared to Tk. 7836 in 2007. On the other hand , the loan amount for men

was Tk. 13777 in 2010 and Tk. 9545 in 2007 respectively. The highest amount of loan was disbursed for

agriculture and forestry followed by trading in 2010.

116

Table 09.11:1 Disbursement of loans listed under broad categories of business activities by

sex, 2007 – 2010

Categories of activities Women Men W/M

No. of (%)

loans

Average amount

of loans(Tk.)

No. of

Loans

Average

amount of loans

(Tk.)

2007

Total 6101193 7836 265957 9545 96

Livestock & fisheries 1858500 7345 63537 9234 97

Processing & manufacturing 932806 7358 50404 8989 95

Agriculture & forestry 965940 7418 38803 9624 96

Trading 1217859 8294 50456 10134 96

Shop keeping 735696 9773 37219 11163 95

Service 316302 7121 23617 7452 93

Peddling 74090 7898 1921 11790 97

2008

Total 6851434 8690 330762 10557 95

Livestock & fisheries 1739890 8386 62590 10435 97

Processing & manufacturing 1122871 8378 75189 9554 94

Agriculture & forestry 1458022 8062 63741 10321 96

Trading 1483018 9181 62378 12021 96

Shop keeping 661905 10682 37201 12468 95

Service 308991 8019 27767 7932 92

Peddling 76737 9052 1896 15110 98

2009

Total 7941856 9534 305671 11510 96

Livestock & fisheries 1708609 9640 58668 12331 97

Processing & manufacturing 1325237 9015 68704 12296 95

Agriculture & forestry 1988247 4540 50720 11209 98

Trading 1767745 10149 63840 12159 97

Shop keeping 707811 11983 31377 14771 96

Service 348049 8606 29767 8387 92

Peddling 96167 9403 2595 11248 97

2010

Total 8328549 11063 284577 13777 97

Livestock & fisheries 1668822 11255 55010 13447 97

Processing & manufacturing 1484846 10253 65463 11972 96

Agriculture & forestry 2291251 9930 56195 13264 98

Trading 1856004 11511 54944 16341 97

Shop keeping 639269 15685 28062 18247 96

Service 304014 10015 22894 9429 93

Peddling 84343 11211 2009 13015 98

Source: Grameen Bank Annual Report, 2010

The table 9.11.2 shows variation of access to credit by sex and residence. Women access to credit was

59.8% in rural area while 69.2% access in urban area. Men access to credit in rural and urban areas were

40.2% and 30.8% respectively. The proportion of women access to credit was always more than that of

men as for following the legislation introduce by the Grameen Bank for improving women’s life through

generating income and reducing poverty.

117

Table 09.11.2 Proportion with access to credit by sex and residence, 2010

Residence Women Men Total

Total 61.6 38.4 100

Rural 59.8 40.2 100

Urban 69.2 30.8 100

Source: Grameen Bank Annual Report, 2010

9.12 MicroEnterprise Loan Delivered by Grameen Bank (GB)

Micro-enterprise loan delivered by GB in 2007-2010 has been presented in table 9.12. It is observed

from the table that as many as 893,600 micro-enterprise loan was delivered to women in 2010 which

was higher than the loan delivered to 272,308 micro-enterprise in 2007. In 2010, number of loans 21233

for men was given with micro-enterprise loan compared to 10,651 loans in 2007. The average amount

of loan in 2010 for women was Tk. 27,738 and Tk. 22,842 in 2007. Such amount for men was Tk.

36,142 for men in 2010 and Tk. 22,212 in 2007. The loan amount was used for livestock and fisheries

by the highest number of loans by women in 2007 but in 2010 it was for trading. It case of men, the

highest loans was also used for trading in 2010.

Table 09.12: Disbursement of microenterprise loans under categories of activities by sex,

2007 – 2010

Categories of activities Women Men

No. of loans Average amount

of loans (Tk.)

No. of

loans

Average

amount of

loans (Tk.)

2007

Total 272308 22842 10651 22212

Services 32696 10528 716 10469

Processing & manufacturing 22574 24469 1340 20297

Shop keeping 47525 30830 1852 32765

Trading 66561 25849 3066 23893

Livestock & fisheries 69042 18935 1949 15828

Peddling 3437 26437 127 18353

Agriculture & forestry 30473 24266 1601 21713

2008

Total 423196 24073 18398 26368

Livestock & fisheries 101656 20903 3039 19837

Processing & manufacturing 39067 27262 1545 32240

Agriculture & forestry 71093 23748 2758 39763

Trading 125063 24387 6580 26707

Shop keeping 64658 27737 3770 37249

Services 14495 20525 448 18401

Peddling 7164 23540 258 24145

118

Categories of activities Women Men

No. of loans Average amount

of loans (Tk.)

No. of

loans

Average

amount of

loans (Tk.)

2009

Total 685287 23575 15479 32208

Livestock & fisheries 164221 20936 3162 23288

Processing & manufacturing 69925 25049 2139 34493

Agriculture & forestry 125467 22686 2629 30309

Trading 205110 23546 4357 34203

Shop keeping 92412 28402 2816 39768

Services 16868 25750 315 28319

Peddling 11284 20463 61 24836

2010

Total 893600 27738 21233 36142

Livestock & fisheries 219264 22735 4240 25325

Processing & manufacturing 88534 33446 2016 34686

Agriculture & forestry 167243 26375 3420 34631

Trading 264870 26807 7161 39163

Shop keeping 118228 37657 3986 43808

Services 20090 27869 259 48602

Peddling 15371 20591 151 26569

Source: Grameen Bank Annual Report, 201

119

CHAPTER 10

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

Empowerment refers to increasing of the multidimensional qualities of individuals and communities

relating to spiritual, political, social, educational and economic strength based on gender issues.

Women’s empowerment lays emphasis on women’s freedom of choice and power to control their own

lives. This is applicable for both the personal level within the household and at the societal level within

the process of social and economic change. Women represent half of the population and gender

inequality exists in every nation. Without the participation of women in all spheres of life, the

comprehensive sustainable social and economic development could not be achieved.

This chapter deals with the empowerment of women in different public, private enterprise and also at

household level. The areas that have been focused in this chapter are electoral participation, participation

in the cabinet of the government, participation in the public office, role of women household decisionmaking

etc.

10.01 Electoral Participation

The electoral participation of women refers to participation in the public offices through election.

Population participation is presented in table 10.01 for the national assembly, which is the highest policy

making body of the country. The number of women elected in general assembly since 1973 is shown in

the table only one female member was elected in general seat for the parliament for the first time in

1979.

The number of women in general seats are seen very negligible portion composed to the total number of

seats in the parliament in 1986, only five women were elected, which come down to 4 in 1991 election.

Although the number of women elected in general seats was 11, number declined to 6 in 2001 election.

That is women participation in the parliament election for general seats have fluctuated in different

periods. In 2008 the total number of women elected in the parliament was the highest (20) and in the

subsequent elections during 2009, 2010 and 2011 the number of elected women were 19 persons, which

was the second highest number over 38 years since 1973 election.

120

Table 10.01: Population Participation in National Assembly, 19732011

Year of Election Elected in general seats No. of

women

elected in

reserved

seats

No. of

women

seats in

national

assembly

No. of seats

in national

assembly

Percentage

of women

in national

assembly

Women Men

1973 -- 300 15 15 315 4.8

1979 1 299 30 31 330 9.4

1986 5 295 30 35 330 10.6

1991 4 296 30 34 330 10.3

1996 11 289 30 41 330 12.4

2001 6 294 45 51 345 14.8

2008 20 280 45 65 345 18.8

2009 19 281 45 64 345 18.6

2010 19 281 45 64 345 18.6

2011 19 281 50 69 345 20.0

Source: Ministry of Establishment and Statistical Profile of Women in Bangladesh

10.02 Participation of Women in Union Parishad

Women participation in union parishad is shown in Table 10.02. It revels that the participation rate of

women as the chirman in union parishad is very poor it is only 0.47%. On the other hand women

participation as the member of the Union Council is seen much higher at 25.26%

Table 10.02: Women and men participation in Union Parishad, 2008

Sex

Chairman Member

Number % Number %

Women 21 0.47 13,637 25.26

Men 4,477 99.53 40,339 74.74

Both 4,498 100.00 53,976 100.00

Source: Local Government Division, Bangladesh Secretariat

10.03 Participation of Women in Upazila Parishad

Women participation in upazila parishad is shown in Table 10.03. It is revealed that the total number of

chairman in upazila is also very poor, it is only 0.44% in 2009. It is slightly increased to 0.63% in 2010.

Table 10.03: Women and men participation in Upazila Parishad, 2009 and 2010

Sex

Upazila Chairman

Number % Number %

2009 2010

Women 2 0.44 3 0.63

Men 452 99.56 473 99.37

Both 454 100.00 476 100.00

Source Source: Local Government Division, Bangladesh Secretariat

121

Table 10.03.1: Elected women and men in Union Parishad and Upazila Parishad, 201112

Division/Zila Union Parishad Upazila Parishad

Chairman Member Chairman

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Bangladesh 22 4132 12236 38036 3 473

Barisal Division 3 324 988 2936 0 40

Barguna 1 38 119 349 0 5

Barisal 1 79 243 717 0 10

Bhola 0 65 196 584 0 7

Jhalokathi 0 32 96 288 0 4

Patuakhali 1 60 183 549 0 7

Pirojpur 0 50 151 449 0 7

Chittagong Division 1 907 2725 8171 2 96

Bandarban 0 28 84 252 0 7

Brammonbaria 0 99 297 891 0 8

Chandpur 0 85 255 765 0 8

Chittagong 1 187 564 1692 0 14

Comilla 0 176 528 1584 0 16

Cox’s Bazar 0 71 214 638 0 8

Feni 0 41 123 369 0 5

Khagrachhari 0 36 108 324 0 8

Laksmipur 0 51 153 459 1 4

Noakhali 0 85 255 765 1 8

Rangamati 0 48 144 432 0 10

Dhaka Division 6 966 2879 9412 0 117

Dhaka 0 76 228 684 0 5

Faridpur 3 73 230 682 0 9

Ghazipur 0 36 108 324 0 1

Gopalganj 0 68 206 610 0 5

Jamalpur 0 62 127 557 0 7

Kishoreganj 0 108 324 972 0 13

Madaripur 0 59 183 528 0 4

Manikganj 0 64 194 574 0 7

Munshiganj 1 65 198 594 0 6

Mymensingh 1 145 440 1312 0 12

Narayanganj 1 35 108 324 0 5

Norshingdi 0 66 198 594 0 6

Netrokona 0 86 259 773 0 10

Rajbari 0 42 127 377 0 4

Shariatpur 0 57 177 507 0 6

Sherpur 0 52 159 465 0 5

Tangail 0 98 294 882 0 12

122

Division/Zila Union Parishad Upazila Parishad

Chairman Member Chairman

Women Men Women Men Women Men

Khulna Division 4 563 1502 5103 0 59

Bagerhat 1 74 228 672 0 9

Chuadanga 0 32 96 288 0 4

Jessore 0 90 270 810 0 8

Jhenaidah 0 67 201 603 0 6

Khulna 2 66 203 609 0 9

Kushtia 0 66 198 594 0 6

Magura 1 35 110 330 0 4

Meherpur 0 18 54 162 0 3

Narail 0 37 111 333 0 3

Satkhira 0 78 234 702 0 7

Rajshahi Division 6 1051 3173 9507 1 123

Bogra 0 107 322 962 0 12

Dinajpur 0 99 297 891 0 13

Gaibandha 2 75 230 690 0 7

Jaipurhat 0 29 87 261 0 5

Kurigram 0 70 210 630 0 9

Lalmonirhat 0 45 135 405 0 5

Naogaon 0 99 297 891 0 11

Natore 1 51 156 468 0 6

Nawabganj 0 45 135 405 0 5

Nilphamari 0 59 179 529 0 6

Pabna 2 69 213 639 0 9

Panchagarh 0 42 126 378 0 5

Rajshahi 0 62 186 558 0 9

Rangpur 0 70 210 630 0 8

Sirajganj 1 78 237 711 1 8

Thakurgaon 0 51 153 459 0 5

Sylhet Division 2 321 969 2907 0 38

Habiganj 1 76 231 693 0 8

Mouilvibazar 0 66 198 594 0 7

Sunamganj 1 85 258 774 0 11

Sylhet 0 94 282 846 0 12

10.04 Participation of Women in Cabinet

The participation of women in cabinet as minister and state minister ranges from 2 to 6. The proportion

of women as percent of total members in the cabinet, ranges from 3% to 13%. The highest 13% women

member was in the cabinet since 2009.

123

Table 10.04: Women and men participation in the ministerial level, 19722011

Period Women Men

No. % No. %

Minister/State Minister

1972-75 2 4 50 96

1975-82 6 6 101 94

1982-90 4 3 133 97

1991-96 2 5 40 95

1996-01 3 8 33 92

2001-02 3 5 57 95

2001-06 4 3 57 95

2007-08 (Adviser) 1 6 16 94

2009 5 13 33 87

2011 6 13 40 87

Source: Cabinet Division, Information and Services, Jan’ 2011

10.05 Women Participation in the Civil Service

The participation of women in administrative service is presented in Table 10.05.1. It is observed from

the table that in the year 2010, out of 4638 officers in civil service only 773 i.e 20.0% were women. The

percentage of women at the rank of Secretary is observed 4.26 % and 6.80% were in the rank of

Additional Secretary. The proportion of women as Joint Secretary constituted 14.21%, Deputy Secretary

13.81%, Senior Assistant Secretary 26.64% and Assistant Secretary 33.71%. It is notable that the

percentage of women participation decreased with the increase in higher position.

On the other hand, in the year 2008 out of 4419 officers in civil service only 673 ie 17.97% were women.

The percentage of women at the rank of Secretary and Additional Secretary was 1.89% and 1.14%

respectively. The percentage of women as Joint Secretary constituted 7.96%, Deputy Secretary 13.20%,

Senior Assistant Secretary 19.29% and Assistant Secretary 29.20%. It is remarkable that the proportion

of women at different ranks has increased in 2010 compared to 2008.

Table 10.05.1: Officers in the ministry by sex and by category2006, 2008 and 2010

Rank /Status 2006 2008 2010

Women Men Ratio of

women

to men

Women Men Ratio of

women

to men

Women Men Ratio of

women

to men

Total 676 3816 15.0 673 3746 17.97 773 3865 20.00

Secretary 1 63 1.56 1 53 1.89 2 47 4.26

Addi. Secretary 0 83 0.00 1 88 1.14 17 250 6.80

Joint Secretary 25 339 6.87 25 314 7.96 78 549 14.21

Deputy

Secretary

172 1299 11.69 170 1288 13.20 178 1289 13.81

Sr. Asstt.

Secretary

206 1108 15.68 212 1099 19.29 321 1205 26.64

Asstt.

Secretary

272 924 22.74 264 904 29.20 177 525 33.71

Source: Ministry of Establishment; Public Administration Computer Center, 2008 and 2010

124

Table 10.05.2: Employees of different ministries, directorates and corporations by sex, 2009

and 2010

Ministry/Department 2009 2010

Women Men W/M*100 Women Men W/M*100

Ministries/Divisions 1310 7401 17.70 1340 7228 18.54

Department/Directorates 206789 610616 33.87 207538 630160 32.93

Autonomous bodies/Corporations 15545 206344 7.53 18236 213580 8.54

Total 223644 824358 27.13 227114 850968 26.69

Source: Ministry of Establishment; Public Administration Computer Center, 2008 and 2010

10.06 Civil Officers and Staff in the Ministries, Directorates, Autonomous Bodies and

Corporations

Table 10.06: Number of women and men civil officers and staff in the ministries,

directorates, autonomous bodies and corporations, 2006 and 2010

Category of

officers and staff

Women Men Total Women

as % of

total

Women Men Total Women

as % of

total

2006 2010

Ministry/Directorates

Class-1 5695 36575 42270 13.5 10229 45130 55359 18.5

Class-2 1716 18722 20438 8.4 4143 18940 23083 18.0

Class-3 107337 390222 497559 21.6 150995 446666 597661 25.3

Class-4 12589 87522 100111 12.6 43511 126652 170163 25.6

All categories 127337 533041 660378 19.3 208878 637388 846266 21.7

Autonomous bodies/Corporations

Class-1 4283 43622 47905 8.9 5310 43107 48417 11.0

Class-2 2653 28402 31055 8.5 2901 27604 30505 9.5

Class-3 5982 91024 97006 6.2 7022 80279 87301 8.0

Class-4 3248 71111 74359 4.4 3003 62590 65593 4.6

All categories 16166 234159 250325 6.5 18236 213580 231816 7.9

Source: Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff, 2006 and 2010

125

Women’s participation in ministries, directorates and autonomous bodies is shown in Table 10.06. It is

observed that women participation under ministries and directorates, all categories is 21.7% and in

autonomous bodies it is only 7.9% in 2010. In ministries and directorates the highest proportion is

observed for class-4 employees (25.6%) followed by class-3 (25.3%) and class-1 (18.5%). In the

autonomies bodies, the highest percentage is seen the class-1 post (11.0%) followed by class-2 (9.5%),

class-3 (8.0%), class-4 (4.6%). In the subsequent years, the percentages of women in

ministries/directorates and autonomous bodies are seen increasing.

10.07 Officers and Staff in Ministry of Home Affairs

Table 10.07: Officers and staff in ministry of home affairs by sex and categories, 20082010

Category of officers Women Men Women as % of total

2008

Class-1 131 1387 8.63

Class-2 53 2702 1.92

Class-3 2778 137664 1.98

Class-4 325 6077 5.08

Total 3287 147830 2.18

2009

Class-1 131 1410 8.50

Class-2 51 2662 1.88

Class-3 2895 139201 2.04

Class-4 324 6056 5.08

Total 3401 149329 2.23

2010

Class-1 169 1915 8.11

Class-2 66 3001 2.15

Class-3 3806 147882 2.51

Class-4 501 5848 7.89

Total 4542 158646 2.78

Source: Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff, 2008-2010.

126

Table 10.07.1: Officers and staff in ministry of defense by sex and categories, 20082010

Category of officers Women Men Women as % of total

2008

Class-1 34 361 8.61

Class-2 22 303 6.77

Class-3 401 3950 9.22

Class-4 132 1781 6.90

Total 589 6395 8.43

2009

Class-1 36 346 9.42

Class-2 21 260 7.47

Class-3 318 3735 7.85

Class-4 93 1708 5.16

Total 468 6049 7.18

2010

Class-1 38 427 8.17

Class-2 31 789 3.78

Class-3 709 11885 5.63

Class-4 565 12059 4.48

Total 1343 25160 5.07

Source: Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff, 2008-2010.

Table 10.07.2: Employees in police force by sex and categories, 20082010

Category of officers Women Men Women as % of total

2008

Class-1 104 1080 8.78

Class-2 42 1947 2.11

Class-3 1646 113064 1.43

Class-4 213 2551 7.71

Total 2005 118642 1.66

2009

Class-1 104 1080 8.78

Class-2 42 1947 2.11

Class-3 1646 113064 1.43

Class-4 213 2551 7.71

Total 2005 118642 1.66

2010

Class-1 143 1606 8.18

Class-2 58 2332 2.43

Class-3 2540 120698 2.06

Class-4 394 2325 14.49

Total 3135 126961 2.41

Source: Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff, 2008-2010.

The participation of women in police force is shown in Table 10.07.2. It is observed from the table that in

the year 2010, the percentage of women as class-1 constituted 8.18%, class-2- 2.43%, class-3 employee

2.06% and class-4 employees in police force was 14.49%. On the other hand, in the year 2008, the

percentage of women as class-1 constituted 8.78 %, class-2 police force 2.11% and class-3, 1.43% and

127

class-4 employees in police force 7.71% . It is notable that in between the years 2008 and 2010 the

participation of women has increased almost double in the rank of class-4 position in police force.

10.08 Women Participation in Supreme Court

Number of Lawyers in Supreme Court by sex for the period 2008 is shown in table 10.08. According to

Bangladesh Bar Council Report- 2008, the total number of Lawyers in Supreme Court was 1780 of them

13.0% were women and 87.0% were men. It is clear from the table that women’s participation in

Supreme Court is very poor compare to its counterpart.

Table 10.08: Lawyers ( in Supreme Court) by sex, 2008

Sex Number of lawyers %

Women 231 13.0

Men 1549 87.0

Both 1780 100.0

Source: Bangladesh Bar Council, 2008

10.09 Participation of Women in Dewani (Civil) Court by Division

The participation of women in Dewani (Civil) Court by Division for the period 2008 is shown in Table

10.09. It is observed from the table that the highest percentage of women in Dewani (Civil) Court was

found in Dhaka Division (12.7%) followed by Chittagong Division (7.0%) and Rajshahi Division

(5.8%). The percentage of women in Dewani (Civil) Court was the lowest in Sylhet Division (5.2%).

On the other hand the participation of women in Dewani (Civil) Court by Division for the period 2009

the highest percentage of women was found in Dhaka Division (12.7%) followed by Chittagong and

Khulna Division (9.9%) and Barisal Division (7.8%). The percentage of women in Dewani (Civil)

Court was the lowest in Sylhet Division (5.3%).

Table 10.09: Lawyers in civil court by sex and by division, 200809

Division Women Men Total Women as % of

total

2008

Barisal 80 1409 1489 5.3

Chittagong 305 4072 4377 7.0

Dhaka 1929 13207 15136 12.7

Khulna 189 3187 3376 5.6

Rajshahi 238 3880 4118 5.8

Sylhet 85 1556 1641 5.2

Total 2826 27311 30137 9.4

2009

Barisal 197 1970 2137 7.8

Chittagong 455 4150 4605 9.9

Dhaka 1929 13207 15136 12.7

Khulna 455 4150 4605 9.9

Rajshahi 377 4953 5330 7.1

Sylhet 97 1825 1922 5.3

Total 3510 30225 33735 10.4

Source: Bangladesh Bar Council, 2008 and 2009

128

10.10 Women Participation in Cooperative Society

The participation of women in primary co-operative society is presented in Table-10.10. It is revealed

that of the total members of the primary co-operative society and the percentage of women were 15.61%.

It is observed from the table that in 2006-07 the highest percentage of women in primary co-operative

society was found in Khulna Division (19.35%) followed by Chittagong Division (17.00%) and Rajshahi

Division (16.60%). The percentage of women members in the co-operative society was the lowest in

Dhaka Division (11.32%).

On the other hand, in 2009-10 the highest percentage of women in primary co-operative society was

found in Khulna Division (25.49%) followed by Sylhet Division (23.71%) and Rajshahi Division

(21.360%). The percentage of women members in the co-operative society was the lowest in Dhaka

Division (11.91%).

Table 10.10: Number of members in the cooperative society by sex and division, 2006 2010

Division Women Men Total Women as %

of total

2007

Dhaka 287029 2248690 2535719 11.32

Chittagong 295400 1441499 1736899 17.00

Rajshahi 351013 1763593 2114606 16.60

Khulna 329356 1373016 1702372 19.35

All 1262798 6826798 8089596 15.61

2009

Dhaka 268053 2368480 2636533 10.10

Chittagong 214874 1228515 1443389 14.81

Rajshahi 273380 1026691 1300071 21.02

Khulna 275704 906419 1182123 23.32

Barisal 86638 558558 645196 13.43

Sylhet 100193 314934 415127 24.14

Rangpur 117564 765735 883299 13.31

All 1336406 7169332 8505738 15.70

2010

Dhaka 322035 2381997 2704032 11.91

Chittagong 221503 1255782 1477285 14.99

Rajshahi 291261 1072408 1363669 21.36

Khulna 282823 826516 1109339 25.49

Barisal 89212 589302 678514 13.15

Sylhet 104633 336758 441391 23.71

Rangpur 135206 764665 899871 15.03

All 1446673 7227428 8674101 16.68

Source: Annual Report, Directorate of Co-operative 2006-2007 and 2009-2010

10.11 Women Participation in Nursing Profession

Women participation in Nursing Profession is presented in Table 10.11. It is observed from the table that

in the year 2008-09, the highest percentage of women as class-1 constituted 100%, for class-2 it is

97.4%, and for class-3 it is 97.4% and for all categories it is 89.5% .

129

Table 10.11: Number of women and men officers and staff in the nursing profession, 20082009

Category of officers

and staff

Women Men Total Women as %

of total

Ministry/Directorates 2008-09

Class-1 8 - 8 100%

Class-2 152 4 156 97%

Class-3 11944 1422 13366 89.4%

All categories 12104 1426 13530 89.5%

2009-10

Class-1 6 - 6 100.0%

Class-2 740 62 802 92.3%

Class-3 11281 1605 12886 87.5%

All categories 12027 1667 13694 87.8%

Source: MHFW , Directorate of Nursing Services

10.12 Women Role in Decisionmaking at the Household Level

Women’s role in household’s decision making in respect to food expenditure, food procurement, food

cooking, visiting to health society for her health needs and sending of mothers or children to health

facility centre for his/her health needs etc. is presented in table 10.12.

Forty seven percent decisions in respect to food expenditure is under taken by the husband only and in

32.6% cases decision is undertaken jointly by mother and other household member. As regards decision

for food procurement husband takes the decision alone in 44.1% cases. Mother and other household

members take 34.0% cases decision jointly. It is notable that in case of cooking food, 50.9% decision

making is done by mother and other member of the household (27.1%).

It is observed that in case of intending health facility for her own health needs, women and other

members are jointly taken decision in 40.7% cases. Husband takes decision in 39.1% cases. Only in 5.6%

cases mother can take decision by herself to visit health centre for her own health needs. In case of

mother’s child sending to health facility for his/her health needs, the decision is undertaken by the

highest 41.6% by the mother and other members of the households jointly followed by husband only

38.8%. The urban-rural difference in case of decision-making in the household level is not significant.

Table 10.12: Women participation in specific household decisionmaking by type and

residence,2005

Household decision Person who makes the decision Rural Urban National

How much money

the household

spent on food

Mother only 5.2 6.4 5.4

Husband only 47.8 44.3 47.1

Mother and other household members jointly 32.0 34.8 32.6

Other household members (s) 14.9 14.6 14.9

What food was

bought for the

household

Mother only 6.2 9.5 6.8

Husband only 44.8 41.2 44.1

Mother and other household members jointly 33.8 35.2 34.0

Other household members (s) 15.3 14.1 15.0

What food was

cooked for the

household

Mother only 10.6 6.1 9.7

Mother and other household members jointly 27.5 25.3 27.1

Other household members (s) 12.3 12.0 12.3

130

Household decision Person who makes the decision Rural Urban National

Whether mother

attended a health

facility for her own

health needs.

Mother only 5.3 7.1 5.6

Husband only 38.8 40.3 39.1

Mother and other household members jointly 40.8 40.5 40.7

Other household members (s) 15.2 12.0 14.6

Whether mother or

other member went

to a health facility for

his her health needs

Mother only 4.7 7.3 5.2

Husband only 38.8 38.8 38.8

Mother and other household members jointly 41.5 42.1 41.6

Other household members 15.0 11.8 14.4

Source: Child and Mother Nutrition Survey of Bangladesh – 2005, BBS

10.13 Attitude of Men towards Women Freedom of Movement

The attitude of men towards women freedom of movement is shown in Table 10.13. It is noticed from the

table that in the rural area, 29.1% cases support that women could go outside the village alone and 27.6%

support that women could go to health center or hospital and 14.4% support that they could go to both

places. Women could go at best one such place was supported by 42.2% men and could not go neither

place suppressed by 57.8% men.

The attitude of urban men is different from the rural area where 37.1% men supported that women could

go outside the village, 42.6% supported that women could go to health center or hospital, 24.8% urban

men supported that women would go to both places. Women could go at best one such place was

supported by 55.4% urban men and could not go to neither place was supported by 44.6% urban area.

Table 10.13: Women’s freedom of movement by background characteristics, 2004

Background

Characteristics

Women who go or can go outside alone Number

of

women

Outside

the village

To Health

Center or

hospital

To both

places

To at least

one place

To neither

place

Age group

10-14 35.4 16.1 12.4 39.0 61.0 145

15-19 34.7 19.2 12.1 41.8 58.2 1,536

20-24 31.8 26.9 14.0 44.8 55.2 2,121

25-29 27.0 33.7 15.8 44.9 55.1 1,953

30-34 29.4 36.8 18.6 47.6 52.4 1,683

35-39 28.7 35.9 18.4 46.1 53.9 1,309

40-44 33.8 36.7 23.5 47.0 53.0 982

45-49 34.0 33.0 20.9 46.0 54.0 870

Residence

Urban 37.6 42.6 24.8 55.4 44.6 2372

Rural 29.1 27.6 14.4 42.2 57.8 8210

Division

Barisal 21.5 30.4 13.1 38.7 61.3 674

Chittagong 32.3 30.0 17.4 44.9 55.1 1,877

Dhaka 31.3 30.6 16.8 45.0 55.0 3,315

Khulna 34.3 40.0 22.4 51.9 48.1 1,296

Rajshahi 32.7 30.1 16.0 46.8 53.2 2,782

Sylhet 21.6 21.5 10.3 32.9 67.1 638

131

Background

Characteristics

Women who go or can go outside alone Number

of

women

Outside

the village

To Health

Center or

hospital

To both

places

To at least

one place

To neither

place

Education

No education 27.7 29.9 16.0 41.6 58.4 4,187

Primary in complete 26.9 29.3 14.2 42.0 58.0 2,176

Primary complete 27.9 29.4 14.7 42.6 57.4 958

Secondary

incomplete

34.2 31.3 17.2 48.3 51.7 2,457

Secondary complete

or higher

52.9 41.6 28.9 65.6 34.4 804

Source: Bangladesh Demographic & Health Survey, 2004, NIPORT

Table 10.13.1: Percent distribution of currently married women age 1549 by freedom of

movement to go to a hospital or health center, according to background

characteristics, 2007

Background

Characteristics Goes or can

go alone to

health

center or

hospital

Goes or can

go alone to

health center

or hospital

with children

Cannot go to

health center

or hospital

alone or with

children

Total Number

of

women

Age group

15-19 59.6 6.4 34.1 100.0 1376

20-24 68.0 12.6 19.4 100.0 2094

25-29 70.6 15.6 13.8 100.0 1859

30-34 69.2 18.0 12.8 100.0 1551

35-39 66.3 20.4 13.4 100.0 1437

40-44 63.6 22.1 14.2 100.0 1040

45-49 55.8 27.9 16.4 100.0 835

Residence

Urban 74.0 13.2 12.8 100.0 2283

Rural 63.5 17.4 19.1 100.0 7909

Division

Barisal 63.1 18.5 18.4 100.0 626

Chittagong 62.7 16.3 21.0 100.0 1877

Dhaka 96.2 16.5 14.2 100.0 3189

Khulna 69.4 18.0 12.6 100.0 1281

Rajshahi 67.9 13.3 18.8 100.0 2584

Sylhet 45.5 23.9 30.6 100.0 635

Educational attainmtnt

No education 59.3 20.1 20.6 100.0 3282

Primary in complete 63.6 19.8 16.6 100.0 2161

Primary complete 67.1 15.0 17.9 100.0 888

Secondary incomplete 69.7 12.1 18.2 100.0 2584

Secondary complete or higher 77.7 11.3 11.0 100.0 1260

Source: Bangladesh Demographic & Health Survey, 2007, NIPORT

132

133

CHAPTER 11

Violence against Women

Violence against women is a violation against human rights. It is curse of human civilization. According

to UN declaration on the elimination of violence against women means ‘any act of gender based violence

that result in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including

threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private

life.

Constitution of Bangladesh has permitted equal right to all citizens irrespective of sex, religion and caste.

In spite of this the women of Bangladesh are the most vulnerable section of population of the country.

The most visible and extreme form of oppression to women by men is violence against women. The data

on violence against women can be seen in table 11.01 and 11.02. Violence includes rape, acid throwing,

physical torture, dowry, seriously injury and others.

The information on cases of reported violence against women and children by categories has been

presented in table 11.01. Only the reported cases of Gender-Based Violence (GBV) are presented here

which is usually registered to the police department. It is revealed from the data that the trend of rape was

fluctuating over the years with the highest in 2003. After 2003 the incidence of rape reduced in 2004,

2005 and 2006, however, it increased in 2007. In 2009 rape cases recorded show reducing at 2973

incidents, but in 2010 and 2011 it started again to increase with the number of incidents 3367 and 3675

respectively. The rape violence situation is aggravating rather than improving .

11.01 Cases of Reported Violence against Women and Children

Table 11.01: Cases of reported violence against women and children by categories 2002 2011

Year Women oppression Child

oppressi

on

Rape Acid throwing Dowry Seriously injured Others Total

Total 19039 1087 - 5400 56288 81870 3725

2002 3702 214 - 1079 11346 17153 535

2003 4118 207 - 1209 12853 18337 461

2004 2865 191 - 663 8023 11643 532

2005 2556 183 - 568 7561 10871 483

2006 2453 145 - 1205 7421 10622 774

2007 3345 147 - 676 9084 13244 940

2009 2973 100 4061 233 5465 12832 -

2010 3367 97 5331 296 7159 16250 1600

2011 3675 88 7079 419 8637 19898 1719

Source: Police Head Quarter, Ministry of Home, 2008

Acid throwing, seriously injured and other categories were in the same trend as rape with some

exception. But the child oppression was fluctuated over time. During the period 2002 to 2007, the child

oppression was higher (940) in 2007 while it was lower in 2003 with 461 child oppression cases. In the

years 2011 and 2010 the events of child oppression were recorded highest 1719 and 1600 events

respectively. However, overall cases of women and child oppression increased gradually in 2009, 2010

and 2011. Rape cases increased from 2973 in 2009 year, 3369 cases in 2010 and 3675 cases reported in

2011. Women oppression in case of dowry 4061 incidents reported in 2009 year, 5331 in 2010 and 7079

incidents occurred in 2011. The violence for dowry is also an alarming situation, gradually increasing

over the period from 2009-2011.

134

11.02 Cases of Violence against Women and Children by Month

Monthly reported cases of violence against women and children has been presented in table 11.02. It

is observed from the table that the total number of reported cases of violence was 10871 in 2005, 10622

in 2006, 13244 in 2007, 16250 in 2010 and 19998 in 2011.

Table 11.02: Number of reported cases of violence against women and children by month

during 20052010

Month Violence against women Child

Rape Acid oppression

throwing

Seriously

injured

Others Total

2005

Total 2556 183 568 7561 10871 483

January 153 7 19 459 638 20

February 177 12 36 547 774 31

March 227 9 46 588 870 31

April 203 10 36 688 939 57

May 250 24 42 732 1048 51

June 248 16 59 723 1048 56

July 246 19 63 744 1079 48

August 247 20 61 732 1057 53

September 256 18 70 699 1044 48

October 217 29 46 572 852 35

November 184 8 55 566 808 26

December 148 11 35 511 714 27

2006

Total 2453 145 1205 7421 10622 774

January 159 6 39 477 665 51

February 181 12 33 591 833 66

March 235 11 73 648 941 70

April 246 8 614 605 919 136

May 221 10 50 731 1004 55

June 220 15 56 656 948 70

July 237 19 63 741 1071 51

August 232 13 70 719 1030 76

September 178 13 66 585 843 62

October 188 11 54 597 843 53

November 200 11 44 611 870 51

December 156 16 43 460 655 33

135

Month Violence against women Child

Rape Acid oppression

throwing

Seriously

injured

Others Total

2007

Total 3345 147 676 9084 13244 940

January 123 8 47 393 604 46

February 179 12 35 611 836 75

March 325 7 53 826 1204 94

April 331 12 68 863 1287 92

May 373 20 72 866 1334 87

June 322 11 61 869 1258 108

July 329 15 57 883 1233 84

August 316 9 60 829 1216 90

September 287 19 59 722 1087 62

October 280 10 51 750 1091 74

November 262 12 64 840 1179 76

December 218 12 49 632 915 52

2010

Total 3367 97 4064 8722 16250 1600

January 172 12 166 524 874 107

February 193 10 197 504 904 90

March 274 6 287 655 1222 143

April 329 7 313 757 1406 166

May 310 8 374 722 1414 136

June 317 8 374 759 1458 139

July 331 11 389 805 1536 171

August 301 8 402 827 1538 110

September 280 5 368 801 1454 118

October 346 10 433 889 1678 162

November 271 5 440 761 1477 144

December 243 7 335 718 1303 114

2011

Total 3675 88 5047 11188 19998 1719

January 222 7 328 633 1190 90

February 254 8 406 734 1402 130

March 300 11 430 866 1607 168

April 341 9 430 884 1664 159

May 321 5 470 915 1711 156

June 291 2 417 827 1537 119

July 362 8 474 1081 1925 177

August 313 10 496 1014 1833 127

September 381 9 493 1193 2076 161

October 382 8 438 1192 2020 167

November 254 4 346 1007 1611 160

December 254 7 328 842 1431 105

Source: Police Head Quarter, Ministry of Home, 2008

136

The trend of violence against women was fluctuated. On the other hand, violence against children was

also fluctuated over time. It was 483 in 2005, 774 in 2006 and 940 in 2007. It is also noticed from this

table that violence against women occurred the highest number of cases during May to September in

2005, May to August in 2006 and March to November in 2007. In the year 2010 and 2011 cases of child

violence increased in number 1600 and 1719 respectively.

11.03 Progress on Antitrafficking Measures

Progress report on anti-trafficking measures specially trafficking in women and children has been shown

in table 11.03.

Table 11.03: Progress report on antitrafficking measures specially trafficking in women and

children from 15 June 2004 to 15 March 2007

Sl.

No

Subject Present position From 15 June 2004 to 16-3-05 to

15-3-06

(cont. rept)

16-3-06

to

15-3-07

15March

2006

15March

2007

1. Monitoring of

Cases relating to

trafficking

women and

children:

From 1st Phase

to 5th Phase

(From 15 June

2004)

1. Total selected cases 146 146 60 -

2. Total disposed of cases 118 142 46 24

3. No. of cases ended in

conviction

65 75 18 10

4. Number of accused

Convicted

111 128 26 17

a. Death sentence 3 3 0 -

b. Life imprisonment 82 95 22 13

c. Other terms 26 30 4 4

5. No. of cases ended in

acquittal

53 67 28 14

6. No. of persons acquitted 214 251 22 37

38 cases are

taken by Police

Monitoring Cell

for close

monitoring

No. of cases disposed of 10 23 9 13

No. of cases convicted 2 10 2 8

No. of accused convicted 4 15 1 11

Live time 2 11 3 9

Other terms 2 3 2 1

Death sentence - 1 1 1

No. of cases acquitted 8 13 7 5

No. of persons acquitted 25 47 23 22

2 Total disposed

of cases

1. Total cases disposed of

under monitoring

128 174 56 46

2. No. of cases disposed of

out of monitoring

61 97 30 36

Total 189 271 86 82

3. No. of cases ending in

conviction

79 108 24 29

4. No. of cases ending in

acquittal

110 163 62 53

5. No. of persons convicted 130 175 36 4572

6. No. of persons acquitted 397 566 160 169

137

Sl.

No

Subject Present position From 15 June 2004 to 16-3-05 to

15-3-06

(cont. rept)

16-3-06

to

15-3-07

15March

2006

15March

2007

3 Monitoring of

new cases (since

15 June 2004)

Total cases instituted 262 390 156 128

Total accused 861 1283 452 422

Arrested 309 427 146 118

No. of cases relating to

complicity of officials

2 3 0 1

No. of officials involved 8 15 0 5

Charge Sheet (CS) 198 278 134 80

Final Report (FR) 52 78 32 26

4 Number of

persons rescued

by

Police 223 325 87 102

RAB 25 25 17 -

BDR 35 98 2 63

Self 78 111 49 33

Total 361 559 155 198

5 Rehabilitation of

trafficked

persons

1. Parents 320 540 178 220

2. NGOs safe home 25 8 4 8

3. Govt. safe home 16 11 6 11

Total 361 559 188 239

6 Repatriation,

rehabilitation

and reintegration

of

camel jockeys/

trafficked

persons

1. Total number of Jockeys

repatriated

168 200 164 32

2. Total number of Jockeys

reintegrated

152 199 149 -47

3. No. of Jockeys yet to be

reintegrated

16 1 15 -15

7 Prevention at

Airport/Land

port

1 Airport a. ZIA Dhaka:

1. Check-in-counter 35 35 1 -

2. Immigration 2007 3142 1445 882

3. Passport checking Unit 29 29 1 -

2071 3206 1447 882

b. Chittagong Airport: 88 88 24 -

c. Sylhet Airport 119 120 71 1

2. Land port

a. Benapole, Jessore 48 48 18 -

b. Hilli, Dinajpur. 23 25 12 2

Grand Total 2349 3487 1572 885

Total pending cases

As on 30 June,

2004

As on 31 December, 2006 As on 28 February, 2007 As on 15 March, 2007

1) Under Trial 494 1) Under Trial 492 1) Under Trial 494

571 2) Under Investigation 21 2) Under Investigation 26 2) Under Investigation 21

Total 515 Total 518 Total 515

Source: Database on Women and Children Issues, MWCA, 2008 and MWCA 2010

138

11.04 Disposal of Cases Relating to Trafficking in Women and Children for Monitoring

Table 11.04 has been presented the information on disposal of cases relating to trafficking in women and

children for monitoring. Total cases disposed, total cases ended in, total persons who were related to

trafficking in women and children and nature of conviction and acquittal can be seen from the table.

Table 11.04: Disposal of cases relating to trafficking in women and children, 20062007

Disposed by Total

cases

disposed

Total cases ended in Total persons Nature of conviction

Conviction Acquittal Conviction

Acquittal

Death Life term Other

terms

Period: From 16 March 2006 to 15 March 2007 (One year)

National Monitoring

Committee/Cell

46 25 21 39 65 3 30 6

Direct Monitoring

Committee/Cell

37 6 31 6 109 1 04 1

Total 83 31 52 45 174 4 30 7

Period: From 16 June 2004 to 15 March 2007

National Monitoring

Committee/Cell

174 92 82 153 304 6 113 34

Direct Monitoring

Committee/Cell

97 16 81 22 262 2 15 5

Total 271 108 163 175 566 8 128 39

Source: Database on Women and Children Issues, MWCA, 2008

11.05 Disposal of Cases

Disposal of cases against violence has been presented in the following table 11.05. It is revealed from the

data that number of cases reported had increased from 125 in 2001 to 164 in 2005. Similarly number of

cases disposed had increased from 17 in 2001 to 109 in 2005. It is noticeable that disposal of cases

remarkably increased in 2004 and 2005 due to effective monitoring system.

Table 11.05: Disposal of cases for five years (20012005)

Year Number of cases instituted Number of cases disposed

2001 125 17

2002 144 20

2003 152 31

2004 134 68

2005 164 109

Source: Database on Women and Children Issues, MWCA, 2008

139

CHAPTER12

MDG Indicators and Gender Dimension of SAARC Countries

This chapter presents some selected MDG indicators disaggregated by sex. It may be mentioned that sex

disaggregated data are not available for many of the MDG indicators. However, attempt has been made

to include some of the selected indicators among the SAARC countries.

12.1 Selected Indicators of MDG

The headcount ratios of men and women headed household indicate that headcount ratio of women

headed household is much lower than men headed household. This can be explained by the fact that

women become head in absence of husband. In a number of cases women become head as their

husbands are working abroad or in the cities elsewhere in the country. The condition of these household

are better off than the general household. Therefore, the rate for women are lower than men. On the

contrary, the headcount ratio of women of destitute households without husband or divorced or

separated women would be higher. Prevalence of underweight is also low for girl child and also for

primary school enrolment. But, adult literacy rate is lower for women than men. Though Bangladesh

achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education level but yet to achieve in the tertiary level.

The condition of girls with respect to under five mortality and infant mortality is slightly better than

boys but in respect of immunization against measles the rate of coverage for girls is lower than boys. It

is frustrating that the wage rate of women are much lower than men and the volume of overseas

employment is also much lower.

The participation of women in Local Government institutions is very low, however, increasing in the

national parliament. The official record on violence against women indicates that violence against

women are increasing. The real picture might be more aggregative.

140

Table 12.01: Selected MDG and PRS indicators disaggregated by sex.

SL No. Indicator Sex/upperlower

Base Current

Year

Target

Year

2015

Source

Year Value Year Value

1. Household (HH) and Socio-Demographic

1.01 Incidence of poverty by

CBN method-using upper

poverty line head count

ratio by sex

Women

Men

1989

1989

35.4

34.2

2010

2010

26.6

32.1 20.5

HEIS,

BBS

1.02 Poverty gap ratio (%) Upper

Lower

2000

2000

12.8

7.5

2010

2010

6.5

3.1 8.5

HEIS,

BBS

1.03 Share of poorest quintiles

in national consumption

(%)

Both 2005 8.8 2010 8.8 5.0 HEIS,

BBS

1.04 Share of highest quintiles

in national consumption

(%)

Both 2005 42.5 2010 41.5 HEIS,

BBS

1.05 Poverty severity index

(Square poverty gap)

Upper

Lower

2000 4.6

2.4

2010 9.0

0.8

5.0 HEIS,

BBS

1.06 Head-count rate of

incidence of poverty of HH

without remittance by sex

of head HH

Women

Men

2005 39.7

42.7

2010 33.6

37.6

HEIS,

BBS

1.07 Ratio of male- headed and

female headed HH of total

HH

Women

Men

1991 14.0

86.0

2010 12.9

87.1

- SVRS

BBS

1.08 Per capita income of maleheaded

and female- headed

HH who received foreign

remittance

Women

Men

2005 1895

1454

2010 HEIS,

BBS

2. Health and Nutrition

2.01 Maternal mortality ratio Female 1991 4.72 2010 2.16 1.18 SVRS

BBS

2.02 Infant mortality rate Female

Male

1991 90

95

2010 35

38

30

32

SVRS

BBS

2.03 Under five mortality rate Female

Male

1991 150

151

2010 43

50

48

48

SVRS

BBS

2.04 Total fertility rate Female 1991 4.24 2010 2.12 2.10 SVRS

2.05 Proportion of 1 year old

child immunized against

measles

Girls

Boys

1991 53.4

54.5

2006 86.5

88.5

100

100

MICS

DGHS

2.06 Proportion of birth

attended by skilled health

personnel

Both 1991 7.0 2009 24.4 50 MICS

DGHS

2.07 Contraceptive prevalence

rate

Couple 1991 39.9 2010 56.7 100 SVRS

2.08 Adolescent birth rate per

1000 women

Adolescent 1991 77 2007 59 43 SVRS

2.09 Antenatal care coverage

(At least one visit)

Pregnant

women

1993 27.5 2007 39.6 100 NIPORT

2.10 Antenatal care coverage

(At least four visits)

Pregnant

women

1993 5.5 2011 25.6 50 NIPORT

2.11 Unmet need for family

planning

Couple 1993 19.4 2011 11.7 0 NIPORT

2.12 HIV prevalence among

high risk group (%)

Both 1991 0.005 2010 0.66 Halting

141

SL No. Indicator Sex/upperlower

Base Current

Year

Target

Year

2015

Source

Year Value Year Value

2.13 Condom use rate (%) Male 1991 - 2010 3.8 100

2.14 Proportion of population

aged 15-24 years with

comprehensive and correct

knowledge of HIV/AIDS

(%)

Female

Male

2009 8.0

17.9

DGHS

2.15 Prevalence of Malaria per

100,000 population

Both 2000 43 2007 58.6 22 Halting

2.16 Death rates associated

with Malaria per 100,000

pop.

Both 2000 0.37 2008 0.11 DGHS

2.17 Prevalence of TB (per

100,000 population)

Both 1990 264 2007 225 Sustain DGHS

2.18 Death rates associated

with TB per 100,000 pop.

Both 1990 76 2007 45 Sustain DGHS

2.19 Achieve, by 2010 universal

access to treatment for

HIV/ AIDS for all who

need it (%)

Both 2007 0.5 DGHS

2.20 Percentage of wasting in

children under moderately

and severely under weight

Girls

Boys

1990 65.9

65.6

2005 45.3

47.1

33.0 CMNS

BBS

2.21 Percentage of wasting in

children under moderately

and severely under weight

Girls

Boys

1990 13.8

15.3

2005 14.5

14.4

CMNS

BBS

2.22 Percentage of children

under moderately and

severely under weight

Girls

Boys

1990 67.8

64.8

2005 39.0

40.3

CMNS

BBS

3. Education

3.01 Net enrolment rate in

primary education

Girls

Boys

1991 54.2

60.5

2010 87.8

85.6

100

100

DPE

BBS

3.02 Proportion of pupil

enrolled in grade 1 and

reached grade V1

Girls

Boys

1991 41.4

40.0

2009 81.0

70.7

100

100

DPE/

MICS

3.03 Adult Literacy Rate Female

Male

1991 25.8

44.3

2010 55.4

62.9

100

100

BBS

3.04 Literacy rates of people

aged 15-24 years

Female

Male

1991 38.0

51.7

2010 81.4

78.1

100

100

BBS

3.05 Ratio of girls to boys

(Gender parity index

(Girls/Boys)

Primary

Secondary

1991 0.83

0.52

2009 1.03

1.17

1.0

1.0

DPE

BBS

3.06 Primary cycle completion

rate

Girls

Boys

2002 64.9

63.0

2007 41.6

49.0

DPE

3.07 Secondary cycle

completion rate

Girls

Boys

1999 38.5

31.7

2005 16.7

23.5

DPE

3.08 Completion at Dakhil

Madrasa

Girls

Boys

1999 46.6

70.4

2005 17.9

30.7

BANBEIS

3.09 Ratio of literate women to

men of age 20-24 (%)

F/M 1991 64.9 2010 124.

3

BBB

3.10 Repetition rate in Primary

education

Girls

Boys

2002 11.1

10.7

2005 11.2

10.7

BANBEIS

3.11 Gross enrolment rate by

sex (Secondary)

Girls

Boys

2001 46.2

43.1

2005 47.2

42.7

BANBEIS

142

SL No. Indicator Sex/upperlower

Base Current

Year

Target

Year

2015

Source

Year Value Year Value

3.12 Gross enrolment rate

(Dakhil)

Girls

Boys

2001 8.7

8.7

2005 9.7

9.2

BBS

3.13 Literacy rate of population

aged 7+

Female

Male

1991 25.5

38.9

2009 50.6

58.9

BBS

3.14 Dropout Rate

Primary

Girls

Boys

2002 36.9

38.2

2010 12.2

14.4

DPE

BBS

Secondary Girls

Boys

2001 86.0

79.7

2006 77.5

70.2

BANBEIS

Higher Secondary Girls

Boys

1999 39.2

40.4

2006 31.0

29.5

BANBEIS

4. Participation in mainstream economic activities

4.01 Sex ratio of paid employee F/M 1990 142 2005 398 LFS

4.02 Sex ratio of self-employed

or employer

F/M 1990 599 2005 1008 LFS

4.03 Share of women in wage

employment in agriculture

sector

Female 1990 45.5 2005 66.6 LFS

4.04 Share of women in wage

employment in nonagriculture

sector

Female 1990 19.1 2005 14.6 LFS

4.05 Net employment rate by

sex

Female

Male

1989 41.4 2005 93.0

96.7

4.06 Labour force participation

rate (Refined)

Female

Male

1999 23.9

84.0

2010 36.0

82.5

LFS

4.07 Unemployment rate Female

Male

1999 7.8

3.4

2010 5.7

4.1

LFS

4.08 Share of self-employment

of total employed

Female

Male

1999 26.6

51.4

2010 25.1

47.5

LFS

4.09 Proportion of own account

and contributing workers in

total employment

Female

Male

1999 34.1

6.4

2009 73.8

5.8

WMS

BBS

4.10 Graduation rate in microcredit

program

Female

Male

2003 59.4

40.6

4.11 Ratio of poor households

covered through microcredit

by sex of head of

HH

Female

Male

2005 15

49

4.12 Wage rate by sex for Nonagriculture

worker

Female

Male

2009 161

172

4.13 Wage rate by sex for

agriculture worker

Female

Male

2009 107

148

4.14 Employment in garments

industry by sex

Female

Male

2001 75

25

2010 80

20

5. Political and social empowerment

5.01 Average number of hours

per week spent on

household work and care of

family members

Female

Male

2005 15

49

2010 29

23

- LFS

5.02 Proportion of national and

local level elected person

Female

Male

2008 30

70

- EC

5.03 Percentage seats in the

government

Female

Male

1991 10.3

89.7

2008 23.2

76.8

- EC

5.04 Percentage of seats in the

local government

Female

Male

2008 0.5

99.5

- EC

143

SL No. Indicator Sex/upperlower

Base Current

Year

Target

Year

2015

Source

Year Value Year Value

5.05 Percentage of women in

decision making positions

in public sector

Female

Male

1999 8.5

91.5

2008 18.0

82.0

- MOE

5.06 Percentage of women in

first class government

service

Female

Male

2005 9.6

90.4

2007 11.6

88.4

- MOE

5.07 Recipient of Remittance by

sex

Female

Male

30.9

69.1

HIES

5.08 Proportion of female and

male headed households

with own house (a)

beneficiary

Female

Male

2007 31.6

69.4

BBS

5.09 Proportion of female and

male headed households

with own house (a) nonbeneficiary

Female

Male

2007 18.1

81.9

BBS

5.10 Percentage of women in

the bar council

Female

Male

2008 9.4

90.6

- Bar

council

5.11 Percentage of women in

the cooperative society

Female

Male

2007 15.6

84.4

- MOE

5.12 Percentage of women in

class-II government service

Female

Male

2006 8.4

91.6

MOE

6. Social protection and continued vulnerabilities

6.01 Percentage of female /

male headed households

below poverty lines with

housing facilities

Upper

Lower

2005 86.2

72.3

6.02 Spousal violence against

ever married women of age

15-54 (%)

Sexual

Any form of

physical/

sexual both

2006

2006

2006

9.4

60.0

75.0

DHS

6.03 Proportion of female/male

headed with HH housing

facilities

Female

Male

2009 0.14 WMS

BBS

6.04 Household under safety net

program by sex of hh

Female

Male

2005

2005

30.6

69.4

6.05 Violence against women

(No)

Raped

Acid through

Seriously

injured

Others

2000 3702

214

1079

11346

2007 3345

147

676

9084

6.06 Anti-trafficking measure Cases

instituted

Cases

Disposed

Cases pending

2001 125

17

108

2005 164

109

55

144

SL No. Indicator Sex/upperlower

Base Current

Year

Target

Year

2015

Source

6.07 Safety net program

beneficiary (%)

PESP

VGD

DGF

FFW

Old Age

Widowed/Div

orced

Retarded/

disable

FSS

Gratuity &

test relief

FF-RMP

2007 18.9

15.7

15.5

9.0

16.9

9.1

10.4

2.1

1.3

0.9

6.08 Women participation in

HH decision making

Wife

Husband

Jointly

2005 5.8

42.3

37.2

2009 9.3

29.8

60.9

BBS

12.02 Differentials of Selected Indicators Among SAARC Countries.

The following table provides the latest statistics and indicators on women and men in specific fields

of concern: population, health, education, labour force, economic activities, employment and

participation of women in parliament for decision making. The statistics and indicators refer to the

latest year for which sex disaggregated data are available. The data have been compiled from

United Nations Statistics Division’s web site http://www.un.org/esa/popuation/unpop.htm .

Table 12.02.01:Estimated population among SAARC countries, 2011

Country Population (in thousand) Sex ratio Urban

population

(%)

Annual growth

Women Men Total Women/100 rate (%)

Men

Afghanistan 15618 16740 32358 93 22.9 3.1

Bangladesh 74792 74980 149772 98 28.6 1.3

Bhutan 347 391 738 89 35.5 1.5

India 600477 641015 1241492 94 30.3 1.3

Maldives 159 161 320 98 41.3 1.3

Nepal 15365 15121 30486 102 19.2 1.7

Pakistan 86937 89808 176745 97 36.2 1.8

Srilnka 10662 10383 21045 103 14.3 0.8

Table 12.02.02:Composition of population among SAARC countries, 2011

Country Percentage of population

< 15 years 60+ years

Women Men

Afghanistan 36 4 4

Bangladesh 31 7 6

Bhutan 29 7 7

India 30 8 7

Maldives 26 7 7

Nepal 35 7 6

Pakistan 35 6 7

Srilnka 25 13 12

145

Table 12.02.03: Differentials in expectation of life at birth (ex0) among SAARC countries,

2007 and 2011

Country 2007 2011

Women Men Women Men

Afghanistan 43.5 43.6 45.3 44.8

Bangladesh 67.9 65.4 71.7 67.9

Bhutan 67.6 64.0 68.2 66.5

India 64.9 62.0 68.0 65.8

Maldives 72.7 69.7 76.8 72.2

Nepal 66.9 65.6 67.4 64.9

Pakistan 66.5 65.9 67.9 64.2

Sri Lanka 77.9 70.3 79.4 72.2

Table 12.02.04: Legal age and singulate mean age at marriage among SAARC countries

Country Minimum legal age for

marriage

Singulate mean age at marriage

Women Men Year Women Men

Afghanistan 16 18 1979 18 25

Bangladesh 18 21 2006 19 26

Bhutan 18 18 2005 22 25

India 18 21 2005 20 -

Maldives 18 18 2006 23 26

Nepal 20 20 2006 19 22

Pakistan 16 18 2006 23 -

Sri Lanka 18 18 2001 24 28

Table 12.02.05: Differentials in adults (15+) and youth (1524 years) literacy rate among

SAARC countries 2009

Country Adult (15+ ) Youth (15-24)

Women Men Women Men

Afghanistan - - - -

Bangladesh 51 61 77 74

Bhutan 39 65 68 80

India 51 75 74 88

Maldives 98 98 99 99

Nepal 47 72 77 87

Pakistan 40 69 61 79

Sri Lanka 89 92 99 97

146

Table 12.02.06: Differentials in estimated earned income in U$ by gender among SAARC

countries, 2007

Country 2007

Women Men

Afghanistan 442 1845

Bangladesh 830 1633

Bhutan 2636 6817

India 1304 4102

Maldives 3597 6714

Nepal 794 1309

Pakistan 760 4135

Sri Lanka 3064 5460

Table 12.02.07: Maternal mortality ratio, infant and under 5 mortality rate among SAARC

countries, 2008

Country CBR CDR MMR IMR Under 5 mrtality rate

Afghanistan 46.5 19.6 1400 125 184

Bangladesh 21.4 6.6 340 42 51

Bhutan 21.5 7.1 200 38 52

India 22.8 8.4 230 48 65

Maldives 18.7 4.6 37 8 12

Nepal 25.4 6.4 380 32 39

Pakistan 30.1 6.9 260 66 86

Sri Lanka 18.2 6.4 39 11 13

Table 12.02.08: Contraceptive prevalence rate of currently married women (15-49 years)

Country Year Contraceptive prevalence rate

Any method Modern method

Afghanistan 2007/08 23 15

Bangladesh 2007 56 48

Bhutan 2007 - 35

India 2005/06 56 49

Maldives 2009 35 27

Nepal 2006 48 44

Pakistan 2007/08 27 19

Sri Lanka 2006/07 68 53

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Table 12.02.09: Adolescent fertility and total fertility rate, 2010

Country Year Adolescent

fertility rate Total fertility rate

Afghanistan 2010-2015 99.6 5.97

Bangladesh 2010-2015 68.2 2.16

Bhutan 2010-2015 44.9 2.26

India 2010-2015 74.7 2.54

Maldives 2010-2015 10.2 1.67

Nepal 2010-2015 86.2 2.59

Pakistan 2010-2015 28.1 3.20

Sri Lanka 2010-2015 22.1 2.24

Table 12.02.10: Net enrolment ratio in primary education 200910

Country Net enrolment ratio in primary education Girls' share of primary

enrolment

Year Girls Boys Year %

Afghanistan … … … 2010 39

Bangladesh 2009 97 88 2009 50

Bhutan 2009 89 87 2009 50

India 2007 89 92 2007 47

Maldives 2011 96 96 2011 48

Nepal 2000 64 78 2011 50

Pakistan 2010 67 81 2010 44

Sri Lanka 2009 94 93 2009 49

Note :National estimation. b=> UIS estimation.

c=> Policy change: Introduction of free universal primary education.

Table 12.02.11: Net enrolment ratio in secondary education

Country Net enrolment ratio in secondary

education Girls' share of secondary enrolment

Year Girls Boys Year %

Afghanistan 2007 a 13 34 2010 32

Bangladesh 2009 48 44 2009 51

Bhutan 2009 48 45 2009 49

India … … … 2008 45

Maldives 2002a 52 46 2006 a 50

Nepal … … … 2008 47

Pakistan 2010 29 38 2010 42

Sri Lanka … … … 2004 a 49

Note: a=>UIS estimation

148

Table 12.02.12: Net enrolment ratio in tertiary education

Country

Tertiary gross enrolment ratio Women's share of tertiary enrolment

Year Women Men Year %

Afghanistan 2009 1 5 2009 18

Bangladesh 2009 8 13 2009 37

Bhutan 2008 5 8 2008 35

India 2009 13 19 2009 39

Maldives 2004 - - 2004 70

Nepal 2004 3 8 2010 41

Pakistan 2008 5 6 2008 45

a=> UIS

Estimation.

b=> National Estimation.

Table 12.02.13: Percentage of female teacher in primary, secondary and tertiary education

Country Female teachers, Primary

education

Female teachers,

Secondary

education

Female teachers,

Tertiary education

Year % Year % Year %

Afghanistan 2010 31 2007 28 2009 16

Bangladesh 2009 43 2009 20 2009 20

Bhutan 2009 35 2009 49 2000 27

India 2004 44 2004 34 2004 40

Maldives 2011 73 2003 35 2003 67

Nepal 2011 42 2008 15 … …

Pakistan 2010 48 2004 51 2008 37

Sri Lanka 2009 85 2004 63 … …

a=> UIS Estimation

b=> National Estimation

Table 12.02.14: Adult economic activity rates and percentage of women in adult labour

force, 2010

Country

Adult (15+) economic activity

rate

Women in adult labor

force

Women Men %

Afghanistan 16 80 15

Bangladesh 57 84 40

Bhutan 66 76 42

India 29 81 25

Maldives 55 76 42

Nepal 80 88 49

Pakistan 22 83 21

Sri Lanka 35 76 32

149

Table 12.02.15: Distribution of labour force by status in employment

Country Year Percentage

employees

Percentage

employers

Percentage ownaccount

workers

Percentage

contributing

family workers

Wome

n Men Wom

en Men Women Men Women Men Source

Afghanistan - - - - - - - - - -

Bangladesh 2005 11.7 14.5 0.1 0.3 26.4 74.8 60.1 9.7 HS

Bhutan 2009 14.3 36.0 0.2 0.3 23.3 21.7 62.2 42.1 LFS

India 2005 11.5 17.6 0.7 1.7 52.1 67.6 35.7 13.1 HS

Maldives 2006 45.0 61.1 1.1 4.8 24.1 11.6 22.9 7.9 PC

Nepal 2001 12.8 33.7 3.7 3.9 70.6 56.7 12.9 5.7 PC

Pakistan 2008 22.1 39.5 0.0 1.2 12.8 39.6 65.0 19.7 HS

Sri Lanka 2009 54.9 59.0 0.9 3.6 22.0 33.0 22.3 4.5 LFS

- not available

LFS: Labour Force Survey PC: Population Census HS : Household or Labour Force Survey

Table 12.02.16: Unemployment rate of adult population aged 15+

Country Year Adult (15+) unemployment rate

Men Women Source

Afghanistan 2005 7.6 9.5 HS

Bangladesh 2009 4.2 7.4 LFS

Bhutan 2009 2.6 5.3 LFS

India 2005 4.1 5.1 HS

Maldives 2006 7.9 23.8 PC

Nepal 2008 3.1 2.4 LFS

Pakistan 2008 4.0 8.7 HS

Sri Lanka 2010 3.5 7.7 LFS

Table 12.02.17: Women in parliament

Country

Percentage of parliamentary seats in Single or Lower chamber

occupied by women

2000 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Afghanistan ... ... 27 28 28 28 28

Bangladesh 9 2 15 ... 19 19 19

Bhutan 2 9 3 9 9 9 9

India 9 8 8 9 11 11 11

Maldives 6 12 12 12 7 7 7

Nepal 6 6 17 33 33 33 33

Pakistan ... 21 21 23 23 22 22

Sri Lanka 5 5 5 6 6 5 6

Note: All the above SAARC data are collected from United Nations Statistics Division’s

http://www.un.org/esa/popuation/unpop.htm;

Source : Human Development Report, 2009

150

151

REFERENCES

BBS Report on Vital Registration System, BBS

BBS Report on Labour Force Survey, BBS, 2010

BBS Statistical Pocket Book Bangladesh, 2010

BANBEIS Bangladesh Education Statistics, BANBEIS, 2010

GED 6th Five Year Plan, ( FY2011-FY 2015), Planning Commission

BBS Wage Rate and Earnings of Non-Farm Workers, April, 2011

BDHS Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

ICDDRB Maternal Mortality and Health Care Survey 2010

BBS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009

BBS Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey 2010

BBS Gender Statistics of Bangladesh 2008

BBS Wage Rate of Working Poor in Bangladesh, 2009-10

MOPA Statistics of Civil Officers and Staff-2010, MOPA

WCA Gender Equity and Equality, M/O Women and Children Affairs

BBS Population Census -2001, National Series, Volume -1 Analytical Report.

CMNS Child and Mother Nutrition Survey

CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women

UNICEF Developing General Statistics: A practical Tool

BBS Report of the Household Income & Expenditure Survey 2005

BBS Report on Vital Registration System, 2007

BSS Multiple Indicator Survey 2006

DPE Report on Primary School Census 2009, M/O Primary and Mass Education

BDHS Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, NIPORT, 2011

BBS Prevalence of Smoking in Bangladesh, 1995

UNICEF Bangladesh Household Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Report 2009

BBS Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Ministry of Planning, 2010

BBS Report on the Bangladesh Literacy Survey 2010

Institutional Approach to Combat Violence against Women in Bangladesh

Multi-Sectorial Program on Violence against Women

152

153

AnnexureA

Constitutional Provision on Women Rights

Article 10:

Participation of women in national life.

Steps shall be taken to ensure participation of women in all spheres of national life.

Article 17:

Free and compulsory education.

The State shall adopt effective measures for the purpose of-

(a) Establishing a uniform, mass-oriented and universal system of education and extending free and

compulsory education to all children to such stage as may be determined by law.

(b) Relating education to the needs of society and producing properly trained and motivated

citizens to serve those needs.

(c) Removing illiteracy within such time as my be determined by law.

Article 18:

Public health and morality.

(01) The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the improvement of public health

as among its primary duties, and in particular shall adopt effective measures to prevent the

consumption, except for medical purposes or for such other purposes as may be prescribed by

law, of alcoholic and other intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

(02) The State shall adopt effective measures to prevent prostitution and gambling.

Article 19:

Equality of opportunity.

(01) The State shall endeavor to ensure equality of opportunity to all citizens.

Article 27:

Equality before law.

All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.

154

Article 28:

Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.

(01) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex

or place of birth.

(02) Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of the State and of public life.

(03) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth be subjected to

any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to any place of public

entertainment or resort, or admission to any educational institution.

(04) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making special provision in favour of

women or children or for the advancement of any backward section of citizens.

Article 29:

Equality of opportunity in public employment.

(1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizen in respect of employment or office in the

service of the Republic.

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, be ineligible for,

or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office in the service of the Republic.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the state from-

(a) Making special provision in favour of any backward section of citizen for the purpose of

securing their adequate representation in the service of the Republic.

(b) Giving effect to any law which makes provision for reserving appointments relating to any

religious or denominational institution to persons of that religion or denomination.

(c) Reserving for members of one sex any class of employment or office on the ground that it is

considered by its nature to be unsuited to members of the opposite sex.

155

AnnexureB

Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

The States parties to the present convention,

Nothing that the Charter of the United Nations reaffirms faith in fundamental human rights, in the

dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women,

Nothing that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the principle of the inadmissibility of

discrimination and proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that

everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind,

including distinction based on sex,

Nothing that the States parties to the International covenants on Human Rights have the obligation to

ensure the equal rights of men and women to enjoy all economic, social, cultural, civil and political

rights,

Considering the international conventions concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and the

specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,

Nothing also the resolutions, declarations and recommendations adopted by the United Nations and the

specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,

Concerned, however, that despite these various instruments extensive discrimination against women

continues to exist,

Recalling that discrimination against women violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for

human dignity, is an obstacle to the participation of women. on equal terms with men, in the political,

social, economic and life of their countries, hampers the growth of the prosperity of society and family

and makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their

countries and humanity,

Concerned that in situations of poverty women has the least access to food, health, education, training

and opportunities for employment and other needs,

Convinced that the establishment of the new international economic order based on equity and justice

will contribute significantly towards the promotion of equality between men and women,

Emphasizing that the eradication of apartheid, all forms of racism, racial discrimination, colonialism,

neo-colonialism, aggression, foreign occupation and domination, and interference in the internal affairs

of States is essential to the enjoyment of the rights of men and women,

156

Affirming that the strengthening of international peace and security, the relaxation of international

tension, mutual co-operation among all States irrespective of their social and economic system, general

and complete disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament under strict and effective international

control, the affirmation of the principles of justice, equality and mutual benefit in relations among

countries and the realization of the right of peoples under alien and colonial domination and foreign

occupation to self-determination and independence, as well as respect for national sovereignty and

territorial integrity, will promote social progress and development and as a consequence will contribute

to the attainment of full equality between men and women,

Convinced that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause

of peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields,

Bearing in main the great contribution of women to the welfare of the family and to the development of

society, so far not fully recognized, the social significance of maternity and the role of both parents in

the family and in the upbringing of children and aware that the role of women in procreation should not

be a basis for discrimination but that the upbringing of children requires a sharing of responsibility

between men and women society as a whole,

Aware that a change in the traditional role of men as well as the role of women in society and in the

family is needed to achieve full equality between men and women,

Determined to implement the principles set forth in the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination

against Women and, for that purpose, to adopt the measures required for the elimination of such

discrimination in all its forms and manifestations,

Have agreed on the following:

PART : I

Article 1:

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term “discrimination against women’’ shall mean any

distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of

impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital

status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the

political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

157

Article 2:

States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all

appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to

this end, undertake:

(a) To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their national

constitutions or other appropriate legislation if not yet incorporated therein and to

ensure, through law and other appropriate means, the practical realization of this

principle;

(b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, including sanctions where

appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women;

(c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and

ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective

protection of women against any act of discrimination;

(d) To refrain from engaging in any act or practice of discrimination against women and to

ensure that public authorities and institutions shall act in conformity with this

obligation;

(e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any

person, organization or enterprise;

(f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing

laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against

women;

(g) To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.

Article 3:

States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all

appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women,

for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental

freedoms on a basis of equality with men.

Article 4:

1. Adoption by states parities of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto

equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in the

present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or

separate standards; these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of

opportunity and treatment have been achieved.

2. Adoption by States Parities of special measures, including those measures contained in the

present Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered discriminatory.

158

Article 5:

States Parities shall take all appropriate measures:

(a) To modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to

achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based

on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for

men and women ;

(b) To ensure that family education includes a proper understanding of maternity as a social

function and the recognition of the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing

and development of their children, it being understood that the interest of the children is the

primordial consideration in all cases.

Article 6:

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in

women and exploitation of prostitution of women.

PART : II

Article 7:

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the

political and public life of the country and, in particular, shall ensure to women, on equal terms

with men, the right:

(a) To vote in all elections and public referenda and to be eligible for election to all publicly

elected bodies;

(b) To participate in the formulation of government policy and the implementation thereof and

to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government;

(c) To participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the

public and political life of the country.

Article 8:

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and

without any discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international

level and to participate in the work of international organizations.

Article 9:

1. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their

nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of

159

nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the

wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband.

2. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their

children.

PART : III

Article 10:

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in

order to ensure to them equal rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure,

on a basis of equality of men and women:

(a) The same conditions for career and vocational guidance, for access to studies and for the

achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as

in urban areas; this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional

and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;

(b) Access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of

the same standard and school premises and equipment of the same quality;

(c) The elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women at all levels and

in all forms of education by encouraging coeducation and other types of education which

will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school

programs and the adaptation of teaching methods;

(d) The same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants;

(e) The same opportunities for access to programs of continuing education, including adult and

functional literacy program, particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible

time, any gap in education existing between men and women;

(f) The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programs for girls

and women who have left school prematurely;

(g) The same opportunities to participates actively in sports and physical education;

(h) Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of

families, including information and advice on family planning.

160

Article 11:

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the

field of employment in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights,

in particular:

(a) The right of work as an inalienable right of all human beings;

(b) The right to the same employment opportunities, including the application of the same

criteria for selection in matters of employment;

(c) The right to free choice of profession and employment, the right to promotion, job

security and all benefits and conditions of service and the right to receive vocational

training and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training and

recurrent training;

(d) The right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of

work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment in the evaluation of the quality of

work;

(e) The right to social security, particularly in cases of retirement, unemployment, sickness,

invalidity and old age and other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid leave;

(f) The right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions, including the

safeguarding of the function of reproduction.

2. In order to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of marriage of maternity and

to ensure their effective right to work, States Parties shall take appropriate measures:

(a) To prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy or

of maternity leave and discrimination in dismissals on the basis of marital status;

(b) To introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of

former employment, seniority or social allowances;

(c) To encourage the provision of the necessary supporting social services to enable parents to

combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life, in

particular through promoting the establishment and development of a network of child-care

facilities;

(d) To provide special protection to women during pregnancy in types of work proved to be

harmful to them.

161

3. Protective legislation relating to matters covered in this article shall be reviewed periodically

in the light of scientific and technological knowledge and shall be revised, repealed or

extended as necessary.

Article 12:

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in

the field of health care in order to ensure, in a basis of equality of men and women, access to

health care services, including those related to family planning.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article, States Parties shall ensure to

women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal

period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy

and lactation.

Article 13:

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in other

areas of economic and social life in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the

same rights, in particulars:

(a) Right to family benefits;

(b) The right to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit;

(c) The right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.

Article 14:

1. States Parties shall take into account the particular problems faced by rural women and the

significant roles which rural women [lay in the economic survival of their families, including

their work in the non-monetizes sectors of the economy, and shall take all appropriate

measures to ensure the application of the provisions of the present Convention to women in

rural areas

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in

rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women that they participate in

and benefit from rural development and , in particular, shall ensure to such women the right:

(a) To participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels;

162

(b) To have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counseling and

services in family planning;

(d) To obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal, including that relating to

functional literacy , as well as, inter alias, the benefit of all community and extension services,

in order to increase their technical proficiency;

(e) To organize self-help groups and co-operatives in order to obtain equal access to economic

opportunities through employment or self employment ;

(f) To participate in all community activities;

(g) To have access to agricultural credit and loans, marketing facilities, appropriate technology

and equal treatment in land and agrarian reform as well as in land resettlement schemes;

(h) To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity

and water supply, transport and communications.

PART IV

Article 15:

1. States Parties shall accord to women equality with men before the law.

2. States Parties shall accord to women, in civil matters, a legal capacity identical to that of

men and the same opportunities to exercise that capacity. In particular, they shall give

women equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shell treat them

equally in all stages of procedure in courts and tribunals.

3. States Parties agree that all contracts and all other private instruments of any kind with a

legal effect which is directed at restricting the legal capacity of women shall be deemed null

and void.

4. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law

relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and

domicile.

Article 16:

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against

women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall

ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:

(a) The same right to enter into marriage :

163

(b) The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter marriage only with their free

and full consent;

(c) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution;

(d) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their marital status,

in matters relating to their children; in all cases the interests of the children shall

be paramount;

(e) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of

their children and to have access to the information, education and means to

enable them to exercise these rights;

(f) The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship, ward ship,

trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions where these concepts

exist in national legislation; in all cases the interests of the children shall be

paramount;

(g) The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a

family name, a profession and an occupation;

(h) The same rights for both spouses in respect of the ownership, acquisition,

management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property, whether free

of charge or for a valuable consideration.

2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action,

including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the

registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.

PART V

Article 17:

1. For the purpose of considering the progress made in the implementation of the present

Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination

against women (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) consisting, at the time of entry into

force of the Convention, of eighteen and, after ratification of or accession to the Convention

by the thirty-fifth State Party, of twenty-three experts of high moral standing and competence

in the field covered by the Convention. The experts shall be elected by States Parties from

among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to

equitable geographical distribution and to the representation of the different forms of

civilization as well as the principal legal systems.

164

2. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons

nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own

nationals.

3. The initial election shall be held sis months after the date of the entry into force of the persent

Convention. At least three months before the date of each election the Secretary-General of

the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit their

nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical

order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the States Parties.

4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of States Parties

convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for

which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the

Committee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute

majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

5. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. However, the terms

of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years:

immediately after the first election the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by

the Chairman of the Committee.

6. The election of the five additional member of the Committee shall be held in accordance with

the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of this article, following the thirty-fifth ratification or

accession. The terms of two of the additional members elected on this occasion shall expire at

the end of two years, the names of these two members having been chosen by lot by the

Chairman of the Committee.

7. For the filling of casual vacancies, the State Party whose expert has ceased to function as a

member of the Committee shall appoint another expert from among its nationals, subject to

the approval of the Committee.

8. The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly, receive

emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly

may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee’s responsibilities

9. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities

for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present

Convention

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Article 18:

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for

consideration by the Committee, a report on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other

measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention

and on the progress made in this respect:

(a) Within one year after the entry into force for the State concerned;

(b) Thereafter at least every four years and further whenever the Committee so requests.

2. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affection the degree of fulfillment of obligations

under the present Convention.

Article 19:

1. The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.

2. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.

Article 20:

1. The Committee shall normally meet for a period of not more than two weeks annually in

order to consider the reports submitted in accordance with article 18 of the present

Convention.

2. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at united Nations Headquarters or

at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee (amendment, status of

ratification).

Article 21:

1. The Committee shall, through the Economic and Social Council, report annually to the

General Assembly of the United Nations on its activities and may make suggestions and

genera recommendations based on the examination of reports and information received

from the States Parties. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be

included in the report of the Committee together with comments, if any, from States

Parties.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the reports of the Committee

to the Commission on the Status of Women for its information.

Article 22:

The specialized agencies shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the

implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their

activities. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies to submit reports on the

implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities.

166

PART VI

Article 23:

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions that are more conducive to the

achievement of equality between men and women which may be contained:

(a) In the legislation of a State Party; or

(b) In any other international convention, treaty or agreement in force for that State.

Article 24:

States Parties undertake to adopt all necessary measures at the national level aimed at achieving

the full realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 25:

1. The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present

Convention.

3. The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be

deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

4. The present Convention shall be open to accession by all States. Accession shall be effected

by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United

Nations.

Article 26:

1. A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at any time by any State

Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary-General of the United

Nations.

2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide upon the steps, if any, to be taken

in respect of such a request.

Article 27:

1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit

with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or

accession.

2. For each State ratifying the present Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the

twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the

thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 28:

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text

of reservations made by States at the time of ratifications or accession.

167

2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not

be permitted.

3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this effect addressed to the

Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States thereof. Such

notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received.

Article 29:

1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application

of the present Convention which in not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of

them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from the date of the request for

arbitration the parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration any one of

those parties any refer the dispute to the international Court of Justice by request in

conformity with the Statute of the court.

2. Each State Party may at the time of ratification of the present Convention or accession

thereto declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article. The other

States Parties shall not be bounded by that paragraph with respect to any State Party which

has made such a reservation.

3. Any State Party which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article

may at any time withdraw that reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the

United Nations.

Article 30:

The present Convention, the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of

which are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed the present

Convention.

168

169

AnnexureC

The Dhaka Declaration for Eliminating Violence against Women in South Asia 2003

We parliamentarians from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and

Iran, meeting in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on the 18-19 March 2003, at the Regional Workshop on

Parliamentary Advocacy for the Prevention of Violence Against Women in South Asia, issue the

following Declaration.

We recognize, and accept, our crucial role, both individually and collectively, as the bridge between

people and government as advocates for the rights and concerns of the people, as legislators to

make laws to protect these rights and mobilise the policies and resources required to create the

enabling environment for this purpose.

Noting that our Governments have considered endorsing or have endorsed/ signed/ ratified the

following international instruments.

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

• The International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

• The International Convenant on Economic, Social Cultural Rights (1966)

• The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against

Women (1779) ; (CEDAW)

• The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1993);

• The Declaration on Violence Against Women (1993);

• The Vienna Declaration and the Program of Action of the World Conference on Human

Rights (1993)

• The Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development

(ICPD), Cairo, Egypt (1994)

• Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration (1995)

• The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998)

• South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Preventing and

Combating the Trafficking in Women, (2002)

We further recognize the following

1. On the basis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the

Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women, and The Convention on the

Rights of the Child, any form of violence against women which can be construed as a threat

to their life, liberty or security of person or which constitutes torture or cruel, inhuman or

degrading treatment in fringes the fundamental human rights our countries have recognized

under international law and in our constitutions.

2. Violence against women and girls taking place within the family, community, at the work –

place or in society which includes, inter alias, ill-treatment, battering, incest sexual

harassment sexual abuse, custodial violence, trafficking in women and rape, is a violation of

the right to life, safety, liberty, dignity and physical and mental integrity of the victim and

therefore an obstacle to the development of a democratic society.

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3. Violence against women in general takes various forms and is unquestionably linked to

discrimination against women and power relation-ships between the sexes in the social,

economic cultural and political spheres and in misinterpretation of religious doctrine, in our

countries and in the family and community.

4. That domestic violence against women in the South Asian region is widespread and

persistent and that insufficient legal instruments and inadequate implementation of the laws

that exist results in women suffering violence in the family.

5. The majority of cases of abuse are not reported to the police/courts, mainly due to the belief

that it is a private matter and the task of proper enforcement of laws and the absence of

social and economic support to protect women, with the result that violence against women

remains a largely hidden crime.

6. That all forms of gender-based violence falling within the scope of the CEDAW definition

and CRC should be considered criminal offences and States parties to the Conventions are

also specifically obliged to act against private persons, companies and organizations

committing violence against women.

7. That adequate statistics and research on violence against women are not available in most of

our countries.

8. There is still a low level of awareness of the specific needs of women subjected to violence

among service providers and law enforcement agencies, including in police, social workers,

educators, lawyers, judges, legislators, public servants and agencies.

9. Rape is a serious infringement of human rights and is used in war and armed conflict and is

defined as a crime against humanity by the Rome Statute that established the International

Criminal Court.

10. Violence against women in the home and in our societies directly and indirectly affects

children and can often create a cycle of violence and abuse that is perpetuated through

generations in families communities and our societies and violence against women has

long-lasting negative impacts on children.

Call to action

We parliamentarians here in Dhaka commit ourselves and call on Parliamentary colleagues,

Governments and peoples of participating countries to strive for primary prevention of violence

against women by empowering women through access to education, laws, policies and programs

including income generation and poverty reduction so as to enhance the role and status of women in

their communities;

We commit ourselves to giving priority to the following actions

Raising public awareness on women’s human rights and violence against women as a basic aspect

of development, peace and progress.

We will strive to promote the creation of a non-violent culture through education and sensitisation

strategies targeting men and women, especially through the mass media and the education sector, as

fundamental tools to prevent intergenerational and social violence;

We will encourage programs for schools aimed at enhancing awareness among boys and girls of the

effects of gender based violence and developing collaborative means of resolving conflicts in order

to counteract attitudes and behavior which tend inter alia to regard women’s bodies as commodities

and inevitably leads to violence;

We call upon our Heads of State / Governments to use the South Asia Association for Regional

Co-operation to designate a particular year as the South Asian Year of Eliminating Violence

Against Women.

Enact and enforce legislation

We will take necessary legal measures to enact and monitor the enforcement of legislation

impacting on violence against women.

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We will support programs to integrate health ser-vices and investigation procedures including

programs on legal aid so as to encourage women and girls subject to violence to report to the

authorities and women’s organizations or appropriate in-situations to take legal action in defense of

women who suffer violence;

We will ensure that resources are allocated and separately identified for law enforcement.

We will support the formation of parliamentary committees which will identify the gaps in relevant

laws, support law reform and monitor the enforcement of laws on violence against women.

Strengthening support services for victims of violence

We will actively support resource allocation and funding for independent services for the survivors

of violence, including one stop safe havens and shelters and gender sensitisation training of law

enforcement agencies and all health personnel.

Strengthening research and information sharing

We will actively encourage the collection of statistics on violence against women,

We will promote nationally and regionally, the sharing of research results and statistics as well as

information on best practices and innovative measures taken in combating VAW.

Regional cooperation

Together we will work towards combating trafficking of girls and women in the South Asian

region which often resulting in forced prostitution; to set up special programs and to introduce

specific measures to support those persons who are the victims of enforced sexual exploitation;

We will ensure that special attention is paid to the position of migrant women and HIV positive

women who are the victims of gender violence;

We will share information and best practices within the region on laws including region laws, and

policies and programs to combat violence against women and develop a process in monitoring the

situation in our countries in meeting our constitutional commitments and responsibilities as state

parties to CEDAW and CRe.

Pledge

We parliamentarians pledge, as public advocates, opinion leaders, legislators and policy initiators to

carry out these actions and to systematically and actively monitor the progress . we make in doing

so.

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AnnexureD

Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action (PEA)

Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China

4-15 September 1995

Beijing Declaration

1. We, the Governments participating in the Fourth World Conference on Women,

2. Gathered here in Beijing in September 1995, the year of the fiftieth anniversary of the

founding of the United Nations,

3. Determined to advance the goals of equality, development and peace for all women

everywhere in the interest of all humanity,

4. Acknowledging the voices of all women everywhere and taking note of the diversity of

women and their roles and circumstances, honoring the women who paved the way and

inspired the hope present in the world’s youth,

5. Recognize that the status of women has advanced in some important respects in the past

decade but that progress has been uneven, inequalities between women and men have

persisted and major obstacles remain, with serious consequences for the well- being of all

people,

6. Also recognize that this situation is exacerbated by the increasing poverty that is affecting

the lives of the majority of the world’s people, in particular women and children, with

origins in both the national and international domains,

7. Dedicate ourselves unreservedly to addressing these constraints and obstacles and thus

enhancing further the advanced and empowerment of women all over the world, and agree

that this requires urgent action in the spirit of determination, hope, cooperation and

solidarity, now and to carry us forward into the next century.

We reaffirm our commitment to:

8. The equal rights and inherent human dignity of women and men and other purposes and

principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, to the Universal Declaration of

Human Rights and other international human rights instruments, in particular the

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the

Convention on the Rights of the Child, as well as the Declaration on the Elimination of

Violence against Women and the Declaration on the Right to Development;

9. Ensure the full implementation of the human rights of women and of the girl child as an

inalienable, integral and indivisible part of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;

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10. Build on consensus and progress made at previous United Nations conferences and

summits – on women in Nairobi in 1985, on children in New York in 1990, on environment

and development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, on human rights in Vienna in 1993, on

population and development in Cairo in 1994 and on social development in Copenhagen in

1995 with the objective of achieving equality, development and peace;

11. Achieve the full and effective implementation of the Nairobi Forward- looking Strategies

for the Advancement of WOMEN;

12. The empowerment and advancement of women, including the right to freedom of thought,

conscience, religion and belief, thus contributing to the moral, ethical, spiritual and

intellectual needs of women and men, individually or in community with others and thereby

guaranteeing them the possibility of realizing their full potential in society and shaping

their lives in accordance with their own aspirations.

We are convinced that:

13. Women’s empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of

society, including participation in the decision- making process and access to power, are

fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace;

14. Women’s rights are human rights;

15. Equal rights, opportunities and access to resources, equal sharing of responsibilities for the

family by men and women, and a harmonious partnership between them are critical to their

well-being and that of their families as well as to the consolidation of democracy;

16. Eradication of poverty based on sustained economic growth, social development,

environmental protection and social justice requires the involvement of women in economic

and social development, equal opportunities and the full and equal participation of women

and men as agents and beneficiaries of people-centered sustainable development;

17. The explicit recognition and reaffirmation of the right of all women to control all aspects of

their health in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment;

18. Local, national, regional and global peace is attainable and is inextricably linked with the

advancement of women, who are a fundamental force for leadership, conflict resolution and

the promotion of lasting peace at all level;

19. It is essential to design, implement and monitor, with the full participation of women,

effective, efficient and mutually reinforcing gender-sensitive policies and programs,

including development policies and programs, at all levels that will foster the empowerment

and advancement of women;

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20. The participation and contribution of all actors of civil society, particularly women’s groups

and networks and other non-governmental organizations and community-based

organizations, with full respect for their autonomy, in cooperation with Governments are

important to the effective implementation and follow-up of the Platform for Action;

21. The implementation of the Platform for Action requires commitment from Governments

and the international community. By making national and international commitments for

action, including those made at the Conference, Governments and the international

community recognize the need to take priority action for the empowerment and

advancement of women.

We are convinced that:

22. Intensify efforts and actions to achieve the goals of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies

for the Advancement of Women by end of this century;

23. Ensure the full enjoyment by women and the girl child of all human rights and fundamental

freedoms and take effective action against violations of these rights and freedoms;

24. Take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and the

girl child and remove all obstacles to gender equality and the advancement and

empowerment of women;

25. Encourage men to participate fully in all actions towards equality;

26. Promote women’s economic independence, including employment and eradicate the

persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women by addressing the structural causes of

poverty through changes in economic structures, ensuring equal access for all women,

including those in rural areas, as vital development agents, to productive resources,

opportunities and public services;

27. Promote people- centered sustainable development, including sustained economic growth,

through the provision of basic education, life-long education, literacy and training, and

primary health care for girls and women;

28. Take positive steps to ensure peace for the advancement of women and, recognizing the

leading role that women have played in the peace movement, work actively towards general

and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, and support

negotiations on the conclusion, without delay, of a universal and multilaterally and

effectively verifiable comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty which contributes to nuclear

disarmament and the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects;

29. Prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls;

30. Ensure equal access to and equal treatment of women and men in education and health care

and enhance women’s sexual and reproductive health as well as education;

31. Promote and protect all human rights of women and girls;

32. Intensify efforts to ensure equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms

for all women and girls who face multiple barriers to their empowerment and advancement

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because of such factors as their race, age, language, ethnicity, culture, religion, or disability,

or because they are indigenous people;

33. Ensure respect for international law, including humanitarian law, in order to protect women

and girls in particular;

34. Develop the fullest potential of girls and women of all ages, ensure their full and equal

participation in building a better world for all and enhance their role in the development

process;

We are determined to:

35. Ensure women’s equal access to economic resources, including land, credit, science and

technology, vocational training, information, communication and markets, as a means to

further the advancement and empowerment of women and girls, including through the

enhancement of their capacities to enjoy the benefits of equal access to these resources,

interalia, by means of international cooperation;

36. Ensure the success of the Platform for Action, which will require a strong commitment on

the part of Governments, international organizations and institutions at all levels. We are

deeply convinced that economic development, social development and environmental

protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable

development, which is the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for

all people. Equitable social development that recognizes empowering the poor, particularly

women living in poverty, to utilize environmental resources sustainable is a necessary

foundation for sustainable development. We also recognize that broad-based and sustained

economic growth in the context of sustainable development is necessary to sustain social

development and social justice. The success of the Platform for Action will also require

adequate mobilization of resources at the national and international levels as well as new

and additional resources to the developing countries from all available funding mechanisms,

including multilateral, bilateral and private sources for the advancement of women;

financial resources to strengthen the capacity of national, sub-regional, regional and

international institutions; a commitment to equal rights, equal responsibilities and equal

opportunities and to the equal participation of women and men in all national, regional and

international bodies and policy-making processes; and the establishment or strengthening of

mechanisms at all levels for accountability to the world’s women;

37. Ensure also the success of the platform for Action in countries with economics in transition,

which will require continued international cooperation and assistance;

38. We hereby adopt and commit ourselves as Governments to implement the following

Platform for Action, ensuring that a gender perspective is reflected in all our policies and

programs. We urge the United Nations system, regional and international financial

institutions, other relevant regional and international institutions and all women and men, as

well as non-government organizations, with full respect for their autonomy, and all sectors

of civil society, in cooperation with Governments, to fully commit themselves and

contribute to the implementation of this Platform for Action.

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AppendixE

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE

01 Prof. Barkat-e-Khuda, Economics Department,

University of Dhaka

Chairperson

02 Director General/ Deputy Director General, BBS Member

03 Joint Secretary, Statistics and Informatics Division Member

04 Representative, Chairman, Applied Statistics

Department, University of Dhaka

Member

05 Representative, Ministry of Health and Family

Welfare (Not below DS)

Member

06 Director (Research), NIPORT Member

07 Director (MIS), DG Health, Dhaka Member

08 Representative, Department of Gender Studies,

University of Dhaka

Member

09 Director (Demography), ICDDR,B Member

10 Project Director, SVRS Project, BBS Member

11 Director, Demography and Health Wing, BBS Member Secretar

Link:

http://www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/Health_Demo/Gender_Statistics.pdf

Posted By:

Advocate Syeda Karima Parvin 

Gender&Legal Adviser

Totthoapa CallCenter,

​Jatiyo Mahila Songatha.